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Glossary of Linguistics Terms
beginning with letter A
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abusage Tweet Definition of abusage Like Definition of abusage on Facebook
noun
  1. (obsolete) Abuse - Whately (1634)
acceptance Tweet Definition of acceptance Like Definition of acceptance on Facebook
noun
  1. The act of accepting; a receiving what is offered, with approbation, satisfaction, or acquiescence; esp., favorable reception; approval; as, the acceptance of a gift, office, doctrine, etc.
Quotation
  • They shall come up with acceptance on mine altar. - Isaiah 60:7
    1. State of being accepted; acceptableness.
Quotation
Makes it assured of acceptance. - Shakespeare: Rape of Lucrece
  1. (Commerce): An assent and engagement by the person on whom a bill of exchange is drawn, to pay it when due according to the terms of the acceptance.
  2. (Commerce):: The bill itself when accepted.
  3. An agreeing to terms or proposals by which a bargain is concluded and the parties are bound; the reception or taking of a thing bought as that for which it was bought, or as that agreed to be delivered, or the taking possession as owner.
  4. An agreeing to the action of another, by some act which binds the person in law.
Notes
  • What acts shall amount to such an acceptance is often a question of great nicety and difficulty. - Mozley and Whitely: Law Dictionary
  • In modern law, proposal and acceptance are the constituent elements into which all contracts are resolved.
    1. (US Government) The act of an authorized representative of the Government by which the Government assents to ownership by it of existing and identified supplies, or approves specific services rendered, as partial or complete performance of a contract.
    Derived phrases
  • Acceptance of a bill of exchange, check, draft, or order, is an engagement to pay it according to the terms. This engagement is usually made by writing the word "accepted" across the face of the bill.
  • Acceptance of goods, under the statute of frauds, is an intelligent acceptance by a party knowing the nature of the transaction.
    1. Obsolete: acceptation
    Derived phrase
  • Acceptance of persons, partiality, favoritism. See under accept.
  • acceptation Tweet Definition of acceptation Like Definition of acceptation on Facebook
    noun
    1. (obsolete) acceptance; reception; favorable reception or regard; state of being acceptable.
    Quotation
    • This is saying worthy of all . - 1 Timothy 1:15
  • Some things ... are notwithstanding of so great dignity and with God. - Hooker.
    1. The meaning in which a word or expression is understood, or generally received; as, term is to be used according to its usual acceptation.
      Quotation
    2. My words, in common , Could never give this provocation. - Gay ??
    accusative Tweet Definition of accusative Like Definition of accusative on Facebook
    noun
    1. (Grammar): The accusative case.
    adjective
    1. Producing accusations; accusatory; a manner that reflects a finding of fault or blame
    Quotations
    • This hath been a very age — w:Sir E. Dering, Sir E. Dering
      1. (Grammar): Applied to the case (as the fourth case of Latin and Greek nouns) which expresses the immediate direct object, object on which the action or influence of a transitive verb has its limited influence. Other parts of speech, including secondary or predicate direct objects, will also influence a sentence"s construction. In German the case used for direct objects.
    acquisition Tweet Definition of acquisition Like Definition of acquisition on Facebook
    noun
    1. The act or process of acquiring. The acquisition or loss of a province. - w:Thomas Babington Macaulay.
    2. The thing acquired or gained; an acquirement; a gain; as, learning is an acquisition.
    acrolect Tweet Definition of acrolect Like Definition of acrolect on Facebook
    noun
    1. (linguistics) the variety of speech that is considered the standard form.
    agglutinate Tweet Definition of agglutinate Like Definition of agglutinate on Facebook
    verb (agglutinat, ing)
    1. (transitive) To unite, or cause to adhere, as with glue or other viscous substance; to unite by causing an adhesion of substances.
    adjective
    1. United with glue or as with glue; cemented together.
    2. (linguistics) Consisting of root words combined but not materially altered as to form or meaning; as, agglutinate forms, languages, etc.
    agglutination Tweet Definition of agglutination Like Definition of agglutination on Facebook
    noun
    1. The act of uniting by glue or other tenacious substance; the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts.
    2. Combination in which root words are united with little or no change of form or loss of meaning. See agglutinative, 2.
    3. The clumping together of red blood cells or bacteria, usually in response to a particular antibody.
    agglutinative Tweet Definition of agglutinative Like Definition of agglutinative on Facebook
    adjective
    1. sticky, adhesive.
    2. (linguistics) having words derived by combining parts, each with a separate meaning
    aleph Tweet Definition of aleph Like Definition of aleph on Facebook
    noun
    1. The first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, <big></big>
    2. The first letter of the Phoenician alphabet,
    allomorph Tweet Definition of allomorph Like Definition of allomorph on Facebook
    noun
    1. (chemistry) any of the different crystalline forms of a substance
    2. (linguistics) any of the different phonological representations of a morpheme
    alpha Tweet Definition of alpha Like Definition of alpha on Facebook
    noun
    1. The name of the first letter of the Greek alphabet (Α, &nbsp;~+mn~), followed by beta. In the Latin alphabet it is the predecessor to A.
    2. (context, science) The name of the symbol, symbols Α and ~+mn~ used in science and mathematics, often interchangeable with the symbols when used as a prefix.
    : alpha particle ("~+mn~-particle")
    1. The highest scientific caste of people in the novel w:Brave New World, Brave New World by w:Aldous Huxley, Aldous Huxley.
    2. In finance, the amount by which a given asset or portfolio's return exceeds a "riskless" rate of return.
    adjective
    1. Designates the first in an order of precedence.
    alpha male, male
    1. (star) Designates the brightest star in a constellation.
    Alpha Centauri, Alpha Centauri
    alphabet Tweet Definition of alphabet Like Definition of alphabet on Facebook
    noun
    1. An ordered set of letters used in a language, for example the English alphabet.
    2. (math) In mathematics, the finite set of symbols accepted by a given language.
    alternate Tweet Definition of alternate Like Definition of alternate on Facebook
    noun
    1. That which alternates with something else; vicissitude.
    Grateful alternates of substantial. -Prior
    1. (Misuse) A substitute; an alternative; one designated to take the place of another, if necessary, in performing some duty.
    2. (math) A proportion derived from another proportion by interchanging the means.
    3. A replacement of equal or greater value or function.
    4. (heraldry) figure, Figures or tinctures that succeed each other by turns.
    verb (alternat, ing)
    1. (transitive) To perform by turns, or in succession; to cause to succeed by turns; to interchange regularly.
    2. (intransitive) To happen, succeed, or act by turns; to follow reciprocally in place or time;&mdash;followed by with; as, the flood and ebb tides alternate with each other.
    3. (intransitive) To vary by turns; as, the land alternates between rocky hills and sandy plains.
    adjective
    1. Being or succeeding by turns; one following the other in succession of time or place; by turns first one and then the other; hence, reciprocal.
    And bid passions fall and rise. -Pope
    1. (math) Designating the members in a series, which regularly intervene between the members of another series, as the odd or even numbers of the numerals; every other; every second.
    the members 1, 3, 5, 7, etc.
    1. other, Other; or as common misuse when meaning alternative.
    2. (botany) Distributed, as leaves, singly at different heights of the stem, and at equal intervals as respects angular divergence. --Gray.
    alternation Tweet Definition of alternation Like Definition of alternation on Facebook
    noun
    1. The reciprocal succession of things in time or place; the act of following and being followed by turns; alternate succession, performance, or occurrence; as, the alternation of day and night, cold and heat, summer and winter, hope and fear.
    2. (Mathematics) Permutation.
    3. The response of the congregation speaking alternately with the minister.
    ambiguous Tweet Definition of ambiguous Like Definition of ambiguous on Facebook
    adjective
    1. Open to multiple interpretations
    2. Vague and unclear
    He gave an answer.
    Americanism Tweet Definition of Americanism Like Definition of Americanism on Facebook
    noun
    1. A custom peculiar to the United States or the Americans.
    2. A word, phrase or linguistic feature originating from or specific to American language usage.
    However, the -ize spelling is now rarely used in the UK in the mass media and newspapers, and is hence often incorrectly regarded as an .
    1. A preference to the United States and the ideas it represents.
    American Sign Language Tweet Definition of American Sign Language Like Definition of American Sign Language on Facebook
    proper noun
    1. a language that uses hands, facial expressions, and other bodily behavior to communicate both concrete and abstract ideas; each sign represents an idea rather than a word, and is not based on English syntax.
    Ameslan Tweet Definition of Ameslan Like Definition of Ameslan on Facebook
    abbreviation
    1. American Sign Language
    analytic Tweet Definition of analytic Like Definition of analytic on Facebook
    adjective
    1. of, or relating to any form of analysis, or to analytics
    2. of, or relating to division into elements or principles
    3. having the ability to analyse
    1. (logic) (of a proposition) that follows necessarily; tautologous
    2. (mathematics) of, or relating to algebra or a similar method of analysis
    3. (mathematics) being defined in terms of objects of differential calculus such as derivatives
    4. (linguistics) using multiple simple words, instead of inflection
    anglicism Tweet Definition of anglicism Like Definition of anglicism on Facebook
    noun
    1. A part of speech of English language origin that has been borrowed by another language.
    2. A cultural aspect typical of the English people.
    animate Tweet Definition of animate Like Definition of animate on Facebook
    verb (animat, ing)
    1. (transitive) To impart motion or the appearance of motion to.
    If we the model, we can see the complexity of the action.
    adjective
    1. That which lives.
    2. Possessing the quality or ability of motion.
    3. Dynamic, energetic.
    She is an engaging and speaker.
    1. (context, grammar) having at least one human or animal referent or inflected to agree with a term that has such a referent
    antepenultimate Tweet Definition of antepenultimate Like Definition of antepenultimate on Facebook
    noun ((plural) antepenultimates)
    1. Two before the last in a series. e.g. (..., antepenultimate, penultimate, ultimate)
    2. The syllable that comes two before the last in a word.
      The word "antepenultimate" is stressed on the antepenultimate.
    adjective (no comparative or superlative)
    1. Two before the last in a series.
      This book has ten chapters &ndash; chapter 8 is the antepenultimate one.
    anthroponym Tweet Definition of anthroponym Like Definition of anthroponym on Facebook
    noun
    1. The name of a person
    anthroponymy Tweet Definition of anthroponymy Like Definition of anthroponymy on Facebook
    noun
    1. the study of personal names
    apheresis Tweet Definition of apheresis Like Definition of apheresis on Facebook
    noun (wikipedia, pheresis)
    (
    aphereses)
    1. (medicine) The removal of blood from a patient in order that certain components (such as platelets) may be removed before transfusion back to the donor; pheresis or hemapheresis.
    2. (linguistics) The loss of letters or sounds from the beginning of a word, such as the development of special from especial.
    aphetic Tweet Definition of aphetic Like Definition of aphetic on Facebook
    adjective
    1. (linguistics) Of, relating to, or formed by aphesis.
    "'Pon" is an form of "upon".
    1. Of or relating to the apheta; life-giving.
    Arabic Tweet Definition of Arabic Like Definition of Arabic on Facebook
    proper noun
    1. A major Semitic language originating from the Arabian peninsula, and now spoken natively (in various spoken dialects, all sharing a single highly conservative standardized literary form) throughout large sections of the Middle East and North Africa. (ISO abbreviations: ar, ara)
    2. The Aramaic-derived alphabet used to write the Arabic, Persian, Pashto, Urdu, and Uyghur languages, among others.
    adjective
    1. Of, from, or pertaining to Arab country, countries or cultural behaviour (see also Arab as an adjective).
    Aramaic Tweet Definition of Aramaic Like Definition of Aramaic on Facebook
    proper noun (plural: Aramaics)
    1. A language in the Semitic language group:
    2. The language of the Aramaeans from the tenth century BC.
    3. The language of the administration in the Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian empires from the seventh to fourth centuries BC.
    4. The language of portions of the Hebrew Bible, mainly the books of Ezra and Daniel.
    5. The language of Jesus of Nazareth.
    6. The language of Jewish targums, midrash and the Talmuds.
    7. The liturgical language of various Christian churchs: often called Syriac.
    8. The liturgical language of the Mandaeans: usually called Mandaic.
    adjective
    1. Referring to the Aramaic language, alphabet, culture or poetry.
    archaic Tweet Definition of archaic Like Definition of archaic on Facebook
    adjective (more archaic, most archaic)
    1. of or characterized by antiquity or archaism, antiquated, primitive, old-fashioned, as an archaic word or phrase
      • 1848: w:James Russel Lowell, James Russel Lowell, The Biglow Papers - A person familiar with the dialect of certain portions of Massachusetts will not fail to recognize, in ordinary discourse, many words now noted in English vocabularies as , the greater part of which were in common use about the time of the King James translation of the Bible. Shakespeare stands less in need of a glossary to most New Englanders than to many a native of the Old Country.
      • 1887: w:Barcley V. Head, Barcley V. Head, Historia Numorum A Manual Of Greek Numismatics - There is in the best coin work of the Greeks ... a strength and a delicacy which are often wanting in the fully developed art of a later age.
        1. (context, of words or language style) no longer in ordinary use, though still used occasionally to give a sense of antiquity. See talk page.
        1898 Brann's compass of words, idioms and phrases harks back to the archaic and reaches forward to the futuristic." William Cowper Brann, The Complete Works of Brann the Iconoclast, http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/english/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=surround&offset=106379045&tag=Brann,+William+Cowper:+The+Complete+Works+of+Brann+the+Iconoclast,+Volume+1,+1898&query=archaic&id=Bra1Ico Volume 1.
    argot Tweet Definition of argot Like Definition of argot on Facebook
    noun
    1. A secret language or conventional slang peculiar to thieves, tramps, and vagabonds.
    2. The specialized vocabulary and terminology used between people with special skill in a field, such as between doctors, mathematicians or hackers.
      The conversation was in the of the trade, full of acronyms and abbreviations that made no sense to the uninitiate.
    Ash Tweet Definition of Ash Like Definition of Ash on Facebook
    proper noun
    1. (given name, female, ) a female given name, short form of Ashley and Ashlee
    2. (given name, male, ) a male given name
    ASL Tweet Definition of ASL Like Definition of ASL on Facebook
    initialism
    1. American Sign Language
    2. Age, Sex, Location (same as asl)
    3. Above Sea Level
    asterisk Tweet Definition of asterisk Like Definition of asterisk on Facebook
    noun
    1. Symbol (
      • ), used to highlight a particular word or sentence, often to indicate a footnote.
      • (context, sports, US) A blemish in an otherwise outstanding achievement.
    They came into the tournament highly ranked, but with a little bit of an asterisk as their last two wins had been unconvincing.
    1. (biology) Alternate of Asteriscus.
    2. (computing) A wildcard symbol.
    verb
    1. To mark with an asterisk symbol (
      • )
    (Punctuation)      
    ayin Tweet Definition of ayin Like Definition of ayin on Facebook
    noun
    1. The sixteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, ע.

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