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Glossary of Governance - Government Terms
beginning with letter S
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sachem Tweet Definition of sachem Like Definition of sachem on Facebook
noun
  1. A chief of a tribe of the American Natives; a sagamore.
sanjak Tweet Definition of sanjak Like Definition of sanjak on Facebook
noun
  1. an administrative region under the Ottoman Empire, a subdivision of a vilayet
  • 1973: This lymphatic monster had once blocked the distinguished pharynx of Lord Blatherard Osmo, who at the time occupied the Novy Pazar desk at the Foreign Office, an obscure penance for the previous century of British policy on the Eastern Question, for on this obscure had once hinged the entire fate of Europe. " Thomas Pynchon, Gravity's Rainbow
satellite Tweet Definition of satellite Like Definition of satellite on Facebook
noun
  1. Object orbiting a celestial object.
The moon is a natural of the Earth.
Many telecommunication satellites orbit at 36000km above the equator.
adjective
  1. Transmitted via a radio signal from an artifical satellite.
satellite TV
satellite phone
scattering Tweet Definition of scattering Like Definition of scattering on Facebook
noun
  1. a small quantity of something occurring at irregular intervals and dispersed at random points
There will be a of showers, with heavy rain in places.
  1. (physics) the process whereby a beam of waves or particles is dispersed by collisions or similar interactions
SD Tweet Definition of SD Like Definition of SD on Facebook
abbreviation
  1. South Dakota, a state of the United States of America.
  2. standard deviation, Standard deviation, a mathematical measure of the spread of a list of numbers
  3. Sheriff's Department
seat Tweet Definition of seat Like Definition of seat on Facebook
noun
  1. A place in which to sit.
There are two hundred seats in this classroom.
  1. The part of an object or individual (notably the buttocks) directly involved in sitting.
Place the of your pants on the of this chair.
  1. A membership in an organization, particularly a representative body.
Our neighbor has a at the stock exchange and in congress.
  1. The location of a governing body.
Washington D.C. is the of the U.S. government.
  1. (certain Commonwealth countries) an electoral district, especially for a national legislature.
verb
  1. (transitive): To put an object into a place where it will rest.
Be sure to the gasket properly before attaching the cover.
  1. (transitive): To provide places to sit.
This classroom seats two hundred students.
SEC Tweet Definition of SEC Like Definition of SEC on Facebook
initialism
  1. Securities and Exchange Commission
second Tweet Definition of second Like Definition of second on Facebook
noun (rfc-level, Noun at L4+ not in L3 Ety section)
  1. The SI unit of time, defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of caesium-133 in a ground state at a temperature of absolute zero and at rest; one-sixtieth of a minute.
  2. A unit of angle equal to one-sixtieth of a minute of arc or one part in 3600 of a degree.
  3. A short, indeterminate amount of time.
I'll be there in a .
  1. (context, usually in the plural) A manufactured item that, though still usable, fails to meet quality control standards.
They were discounted because they contained blemishes, nicks or were otherwise factory seconds.
  1. The attendant of a contestant in a duel or box, boxing match, who must be ready to take over if the contestant drops out. In the case of a duel, the seconds may also fight each other at 90° to the other contestants.
  2. One who agrees in addition, or such a motion, as required in certain meetings to pass judgement etc.
If we want the motion to pass, we will need a .
  1. Another chance to achieve what should have been done the first time, usually indicating success this time around. (See second-guess.)
  2. The second gear of an engine.
  3. (baseball) second base, Second base.
verb
  1. (transitive) To agree as a second person to (a proposal), usually to reach a necessary quorum of two.
I the motion.
Second World War Tweet Definition of Second World War Like Definition of Second World War on Facebook
proper noun
  1. The major armed conflict from September 1939 until late 1945, involving most nation, nations of the world, and culminating in the victory of the Allies over the Axis.
secret Tweet Definition of secret Like Definition of secret on Facebook
noun
  1. Knowledge that is hidden and intended to be kept hidden.
Can you keep a ? So can I.
verb
  1. To secrete (to hide away).
adjective
  1. being or kept hidden.
We went down a passage.
secretariat Tweet Definition of secretariat Like Definition of secretariat on Facebook
noun
  1. The office or department of a government secretary
secretary Tweet Definition of secretary Like Definition of secretary on Facebook
noun (secretaries)
  1. A person who keeps records, takes notes and handles general clerical work.
  2. The head of a department of government.
  3. A managerial or leading position in certain non-profit organizations, such as political parties, trade unions, international organizations.
Kofi Annan is the current secretary general of the United Nations.
  1. A type of desk.
  2. A species of bird; Sagittarius serpentarius.
Security Council Tweet Definition of Security Council Like Definition of Security Council on Facebook
proper noun
  1. The UN Security Council.
sedition Tweet Definition of sedition Like Definition of sedition on Facebook
noun
  1. the organized incitement of rebellion or civil disorder against authority or the state
  2. insurrection or rebellion
Sejm Tweet Definition of Sejm Like Definition of Sejm on Facebook
proper noun
  1. The lower house of the Polish parliament.
selectman Tweet Definition of selectman Like Definition of selectman on Facebook
noun (selectmen)
  1. any of a board of municipal officers elected to manage some New England towns
senate Tweet Definition of senate Like Definition of senate on Facebook
noun
  1. In some bicameral legislative systems, the upper house or chamber.
  2. A group of experienced, respected, wise individuals serving as decision makers or advisors in a political system or in institutional governance, as in a university, and traditionally of advanced age and male.
    • 1818, w:Percy_Bysshe_Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley,"The Revolt of Islam", canto 11, stanza 13, lines 4338-9,
    • :Before the Tyrant's throne
    • :All night his aged Senate sate.
senator Tweet Definition of senator Like Definition of senator on Facebook
noun
  1. Originally, a position in government held in ancient Rome by experienced, elder officials as advisors or consultants for younger, less experienced functionaries.
  2. A member, normally elected, in the house or chamber of a legislature called a senate. The legislatures of the United States and Canada have senators.
senatorial Tweet Definition of senatorial Like Definition of senatorial on Facebook
adjective
  1. Relating to the senate.
    The investigation involved subpeonas and testimony before congress, and of course went no where.
sergeant Tweet Definition of sergeant Like Definition of sergeant on Facebook
noun
  1. The highest rank of noncommissioned officer in most non-naval military forces and police.
service Tweet Definition of service Like Definition of service on Facebook
noun
  1. (economics) That which is produced, then traded, bought or sold, then finally consumed and consists of an action or work.
Hair care is a industry.
  1. (computing) A function that is provided by one program or machine for another.
This machine provides the name for the LAN.
  1. The military.
I did three years in the before coming here.
  1. A set of dishes or utensils.
She brought out the silver tea .
  1. The act of initially starting, or serving, the ball in play in tennis, volleyball, and other games.
The player had four faults in the set.
  1. A religious rite or ritual.
The funeral was touching.
  1. The serving, or delivery, of a summons or writ.
The happened yesterday.
  1. (public service) that which is provided by the Government or its agents
The Job Centre provides a to the unemployed.
  1. (religion) Doing something for someone else without thought of reward or payment.
verb (servic, ing)
  1. to serve
They the customer base.
  1. to perform maintenance
He is going to the car.
shadow Tweet Definition of shadow Like Definition of shadow on Facebook
noun
  1. A dark image projected onto a surface where light is blocked by the shade of an object.
My lengthened as the sun began to set.
  1. Relative darkness, especially as caused by the interruption of light; gloom, obscurity.
I immediately jumped in as I saw them approach.
  1. That which looms as though a shadow.
I don't have a of doubt in my mind that my plan will succeed.
The of fear of me being outed always affects how I live my life.
I lived in her my whole life.
  1. Merely a hint of substance.
He came back from war the of a man.
He did not give even a of respect to the professor.
  1. One who secretly or furtively follows another.
The constable was promoted to working as a for the Royals.
verb
  1. To block light or radio transmission.
Looks like that cloud's going to us.
  1. To secretly track or follow another, to keep under surveillance.
  2. (complang) To make an identifier, usually a variable, inaccessible by declaring another of the same name within the scope of the first.
shah Tweet Definition of shah Like Definition of shah on Facebook
noun
  1. a king of Persia
  2. a supreme ruler in some Middle Eastern nations
  3. a common surname in India; that is spelled with a capital Shah
shape Tweet Definition of shape Like Definition of shape on Facebook
noun
  1. The status or condition of something
  • The used bookshop wouldn't offer much due to the poor of the book.
    1. condition, Condition of personal health, especially muscular health.
  • The vet checked to see what kind of the animal was in.
  • We exercise to keep in good physical .
    1. The appearance of something, especially its outline.
    He cut a square out of the cake.
    1. A figure with unspecified appearance; especially a geometric figure.
  • What shall we use for the cookies? Stars, circles, or diamonds?
  • verb (shapes, shaping, shaped, shaped or shapen)
    1. (transitive) To give something a shape and definition.
    • Shape the dough into a pretzel.
  • For my art project, I plan to my clay lump into a bowl.
    1. 1932, The American Scholar, page 227, United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa
    2. : The professor never pretended to the academic prerogative of forcing his students into his own channels of reasoning; he entered into and helped the discussion but above all he made his men learn to think for themselves and rely upon their own intellectual judgments.
    sheriff Tweet Definition of sheriff Like Definition of sheriff on Facebook
    noun
    1. excl. (Scotland) (High Sheriff) An official of a shire or county office, responsible for carrying out court orders and other duties.
    2. (Scotland) A judge in the sheriff court, the court of a county or sheriffdom.
    3. A police officer, usually the chief of police for a county or other district.
    show trial Tweet Definition of show trial Like Definition of show trial on Facebook
    noun 
    1. A trial held for appearance's sake, but for which the verdict is predetermined.
    Sinn Fein Tweet Definition of Sinn Fein Like Definition of Sinn Fein on Facebook
    proper nounor (strictly) Sinn Féin
    1. An Irish political party committed to the reunification of Ireland.
    slate Tweet Definition of slate Like Definition of slate on Facebook
    noun
    1. (uncountable) a fine-grained homogeneous sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash which has been metamorphosed so that it cleaves easily into thin layers.
    2. (uncountable) The bluish-grey colour of most slate.
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    1. 708090" width="80">&nbsp; </td></tr></table>
      1. (countable) A sheet of slate for writing on with chalk.
      2. (countable) A tile made of slate.
      3. (countable) A record of money owed.
      Put it on my - I'll pay you next week.
      1. (countable) A list of affiliated candidates for an election.
    verb (slates, slating, slated)
    1. (context, chiefly, UK) To criticise harshly.
    The play was slated by the critics.
    1. (context, mainly, US) To schedule.
    The election was slated for November 2nd.
    1. (context, mainly, US) To destine or strongly expect.
    The next version of our software is slated to be the best release ever.
    adjective (notcomp)
    1. (colour) Having the bluish-grey/gray colour/color of slate.
    social democracy Tweet Definition of social democracy Like Definition of social democracy on Facebook
    noun
    1. A moderate political philosophy that aims to achieve socialistic goals within capitalist society such as by means of a strong welfare state and regulation of private industry.
    2. Theory and practice of the transition from capitalism to socialism by democratic means; increasingly replaced in usage by democratic socialism.
    3. Society based on either (1) or (2).
    socialism Tweet Definition of socialism Like Definition of socialism on Facebook
    noun
    1. Any of various political philosophies that support social and economic equality, collective decision-making and public control of productive capital and natural resources, as advocated by socialists.
    2. The socialist political philosophies as a group, including Marxism, libertarian socialism, democratic socialism, and social democracy.
    3. (context, Leninism) The intermediate phase of social development between capitalism and full communism. This is a strategy whereby the State has control of all key resource-producing industries and manages most aspects of the market, in contrast to laissez faire capitalism.
    4. (context, Classical Marxism) The international communist society where classes and the state no longer exist.
    Socialist Tweet Definition of Socialist Like Definition of Socialist on Facebook
    noun
    1. A member of a party or political group that advocates socialism.
    adjective
    1. Of, belonging to, or constituting a party or political group that advocates socialism.
    social security Tweet Definition of social security Like Definition of social security on Facebook
    noun
    1. A system whereby the state either through general or specific taxation provides various benefits to those unable to provide for themselves.
    2. Those benefits paid under such a system.
    (trans-top, system)
    • Finnish: sosiaaliturva, sosiaaliturvají¤rjestelmí¤
      (trans-mid)
      (trans-bottom) (trans-top, benefits)
    • Finnish: sosiaaliturva, sosiaalietu
      (trans-mid)
      (trans-bottom)
    soft Tweet Definition of soft Like Definition of soft on Facebook
    adjective ((compar): softer, (superl): softest)
    1. Giving way under pressure.
    My head sank easily into the soft pillow.
    1. (context, of cloth or similar material) Smooth and flexible.
    Polish the silver with a soft cloth to avoid scratching.
    1. Gentle.
    There was a soft breeze blowing.
    1. (context, of a sound) Quiet.
    I could hear the soft rustle of the leaves in the trees.''
    1. (linguistics) voiced, sonant
    DH represents the voiced (soft) th of English these clothes. " w:The Lords of the Rings, The Lord of the Rings, w:J.R.R. Tolkien, J.R.R. Tolkien
    1. (linguistics) (rare) voiceless
    2. (linguistics) palatalized
    3. Lacking strength or resolve.
    When it comes to drinking, Wessel is as soft as they come.
    1. (context, of water) Low in dissolved calcium compounds.
    You won't need as much soap, as the water here is very soft.
    1. (Northern British, colloquial) Foolish.
    sovereign Tweet Definition of sovereign Like Definition of sovereign on Facebook
    noun
    1. A monarch; the ruler of a country.
    2. One who is not a subject to a ruler or nation.
    3. A gold coin minted by the United Kingdom.
    4. A very large champagne bottle with the capacity of about 25 liters, equivalent to 33â…“ standard bottles.
    adjective
    1. Exercising power of rule.
    nation
    1. Exceptional in quality.
    remedy
    sovereignty Tweet Definition of sovereignty Like Definition of sovereignty on Facebook
    noun (sovereignties, -)
    1. (context, of a nation) The ability to make its own laws and control its own resources.
    2. (context, of God) Supremacy over all, supreme authority. (Ref. "King of kings, and Lord of lords")
    3. (context, of self) The ability to make its own values and restraints. Also see autonomy.
    soviet Tweet Definition of soviet Like Definition of soviet on Facebook
    noun
    1. A form of governing council in the former Soviet Union.
      • 2005: Kratochvil, Jedlicka, Safar, Kubes and Vasata, who always took an interest in politics, set up a in the last wagon and uncoupled it from the rest of the train in the night. " James Meek, The People's Act of Love (Canongate 2006, p. 230)
      • The main form of government at all levels of post-revolutionary Russia (Soviet Union).
    adjective
    1. Pertaining to a soviet.
    2. (with intial capital letter; Soviet) Pertaining to the Soviet Union or its constituent republics.
    speaker Tweet Definition of speaker Like Definition of speaker on Facebook
    noun
    1. one who speaks
    A native English speaker.
    1. loudspeaker
    2. (politics) the chair or presiding officer of certain legislative bodies, such as the U.K. House of Commons or the U.S. House of Representatives
    3. one who makes a speech to an audience
    The company hired a motivational speaker to boost morale.
    sphere of influence Tweet Definition of sphere of influence Like Definition of sphere of influence on Facebook
    noun
    1. The area (literal or figurative) influenced by a country, person, etc.
    Split Tweet Definition of Split Like Definition of Split on Facebook
    proper noun
    1. A port of Croatia.
    SS Tweet Definition of SS Like Definition of SS on Facebook
    initialism
    1. Schutzstaffel
    2. social security
    3. spousal support
    4. steam ship
    SSA Tweet Definition of SSA Like Definition of SSA on Facebook
    initialism
    1. Social Security Administration (US)
    2. Specific Surface Area
    SSI Tweet Definition of SSI Like Definition of SSI on Facebook
    initialism
    1. (computing) Server Side Include
    2. Supplemental Security Income
    stadtholder Tweet Definition of stadtholder Like Definition of stadtholder on Facebook
    noun
    1. The chief magistrate, then later, hereditary chief-of-state of the Dutch Republic (mod. Dutch stadhouder).
    2. An office formerly held by Danish and Swedish officials best translated as Governor-general.
    Stakhanovite Tweet Definition of Stakhanovite Like Definition of Stakhanovite on Facebook
    noun
    1. An extremely productive or hard-working worker, especially in the former USSR, who may earn special rewards.
    adjective
    1. Pertaining to a Stakhanovite.
    • 1993: The great galvanised iron shed where the valves were made was a cacophonous and tumultuous place, full of workers torturing plugs of super-heavy metal with screaming drill bits. " Will Self, My Idea of Fun
    Stalinism Tweet Definition of Stalinism Like Definition of Stalinism on Facebook
    noun
    1. The Communist philosophy espoused by Soviet Leader Josef Stalin.
    2. The act or state of living in accord with the philosophies of Stalin.
    3. totalitarianism, Totalitarianism, by extension from the rigid governing methods of Stalin.
    stalwart Tweet Definition of stalwart Like Definition of stalwart on Facebook
    noun
    1. one who has a strong build
    2. one who firmly supports a cause
    adjective
    1. Firmly built.
      • 2002 November 10, Aaron Ehasz, "Crimes of the Hot", Futurama, season 5, episode 1, Fox Broadcasting Company
      • : Morbo: Direct your attention now to the African turtles seen here migrating.... Morbo wishes these nomads peace
        1. courageous, Courageous.
    State Tweet Definition of State Like Definition of State on Facebook
    proper noun
    1. State University, as the shortened form of any public university name.
    statesman Tweet Definition of statesman Like Definition of statesman on Facebook
    noun (statesmen)
    1. A man who is a leader in national or international affairs.
    2. A political leader who promotes the public good.
    statism Tweet Definition of statism Like Definition of statism on Facebook
    noun
    1. A belief in the importance of the power of the state over an individual, used to describe more extreme views.
    statist Tweet Definition of statist Like Definition of statist on Facebook
    noun
    1. A supporter of statism
    2. A statistician. (not common)
    3. A skilled politician or one with political power, knowledge or influence. (outdated, common in 17th century)
    adjective Relating to statism.      
    stonewalling Tweet Definition of stonewalling Like Definition of stonewalling on Facebook
    verb
    1. (present participle of, stonewall)
    straight Tweet Definition of straight Like Definition of straight on Facebook
    noun
    1. A part of a racecourse, running track or other road etc that is not curved.
    2. In poker, five cards in sequence.
    adjective (straighter, straightest)
    1. Not crooked or bent; having a constant direction throughout its length.
    a line.
    1. Strictly along political lines.
    He always votes a ticket.
    1. Direct, truthful, frank.
    a answer.
    1. As it should be.
    Everything is now.
    1. Undiluted.
    whiskey.
    1. Having all cylinders in a single row. (referring to an internal combustion engine)
    a six.
    1. slang: conventional.
    2. slang: heterosexual.
    3. slang: boring, unappealing, bad or of low quality.
    4. (cricket) On, or near a line running between the two wickets.
    adverb ((compar): straighter, (superl): straightest)
    1. In a forward direction.
    ahead
    1. Continuously; without interruption or pause.
    He claims he can hold his breath for three minutes .
    strongman Tweet Definition of strongman Like Definition of strongman on Facebook
    noun (strongmen)
    1. A performer who demonstrates feats of strength.
    2. A man who competes in contests of physical strength.
    3. A forceful or brutal person, usually applied to a ruler or tyrant.
    stuff Tweet Definition of stuff Like Definition of stuff on Facebook
    noun
    1. The tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object.
    What is all that on your bedroom floor?
    1. (italbrac-colon, cadigan) Substitution for material of unknown type or name.
    Can I have some of that on my ice-cream sundae?
    1. Substitution for trivial details (youth slang)
    I had to do some .
    verb
    1. To fill something up in a compressed manner.
    She stuffed the turkey for Thanksgiving using her secret stuffing recipe of diced bread, onions, and celery .
    1. To be sated.
    I"m stuffed after having eaten all that turkey, mashed potatoes and delicious stuffing.
    1. (italbrac-colon, British, Australian) To be broken.
    It"s stuffed.
    1. (italbrac-colon, vulgar, British, Australian) Insult.
    Get stuffed you arsehole!
    1. To be cut off in a race by having one's projected and committed racing line (trajectory) disturbed by an abrupt maneuver by a competitor.