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Glossary of Governance - Government Terms
beginning with letter P
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Padishah Tweet Definition of Padishah Like Definition of Padishah on Facebook
noun
  1. (historic) a ruler of a Muslim country or state
Page Tweet Definition of Page Like Definition of Page on Facebook
proper noun
  1. an English and Scottish occupational surname for someone who was a servant
panhellenic Tweet Definition of panhellenic Like Definition of panhellenic on Facebook
adjective
  1. of or relating to all Greece or all the Greeks.
  2. of or relating to the Greek alphabet, Greek-letter fraternity, fraternities or sorority, sororities in American college and universities or to an assocation representing them.
Pan-Slavism Tweet Definition of Pan-Slavism Like Definition of Pan-Slavism on Facebook
noun '''Pan-Slavism
  1. A movement aimed at uniting all the Slavic peoples.
parastatal Tweet Definition of parastatal Like Definition of parastatal on Facebook
noun
  1. such a company or agency
adjective
  1. owned or controlled by a government; either wholly or partly
parish Tweet Definition of parish Like Definition of parish on Facebook
noun
  1. In the Anglican and Roman Catholic church, an administrative part of a diocese that has its own church.
  2. The community attending that church; the members of the parish.
  3. A civil subdivision of a British county, often corresponding to an earlier ecclesiastical parish.
  4. An administrative subdivision in Louisiana that is equivalent to a county in other U.S. states.
parity Tweet Definition of parity Like Definition of parity on Facebook
noun (parities, -)
  1. (context, uncountable) equal; even; of comparable strength or intensity
  2. (context, countable) (italbrac, of a set) the property of having only two classifications, especially (in mathematics) the classifications even and odd
Parity is always preserved in such operations.
  1. (context, countable) the classification of an item into one of two sets, especially (in mathematics) into even or odd
The particles' parities can switch at random.
  1. (in physics) symmetry of interactions under spatial inversion
  2. (in medicine) the number of times a woman has given birth
  3. (in gaming) in Othello(r) or reversi it is the last move within a given sector of the board
parliament Tweet Definition of parliament Like Definition of parliament on Facebook
noun
  1. Institution whose elected or appointed members meet to debate the major political issues of the day and to exercise legislative powers, and in some cases executive or judicial powers also.
  2. (context, by extension) The collective noun for a group of rooks (italbrac, the species of bird) or owls.
parliamentarian Tweet Definition of parliamentarian Like Definition of parliamentarian on Facebook
noun
  1. A person well-versed in parliamentary procedure.
  2. An officer in most legislative bodies charged with being well-versed in the parliamentary rules of that legislative house, and whose rulings are taken as authoritative, to be appealed only to the whole of the house itself under special rules.
parliamentary Tweet Definition of parliamentary Like Definition of parliamentary on Facebook
adjective
  1. Of, relating to, or enacted by a parliament
Parliamentary procedures are sometimes slow
  1. Having the supreme executive and legislative power resting with a cabinet of ministers chosen from, and responsible to a parliament.
Britain is a democracy
participatory democracy Tweet Definition of participatory democracy Like Definition of participatory democracy on Facebook
noun
  1. Kind of democracy not limiting participation of citizens to voting, but striving to create opportunities for everybody to make meaningful contributions to decisionmaking.
partisan Tweet Definition of partisan Like Definition of partisan on Facebook
noun
  1. An adherent to a party or faction
    • 1924: ARISTOTLE. Metaphysics. Translated by W. D. Ross. Nashotah, Wisconsin, USA: The Classical Library, 2001. Available at: <http://www.classicallibrary.org/aristotle/metaphysics/>. Book 1, Part 5.
    • : while Xenophanes, the first of these partisans of the One (for Parmenides is said to have been his pupil), gave no clear statement,
      1. A fervent, sometimes militant, supporter or proponent of a party, cause, faction, person, or idea.
      2. The commander of a body of detached light troops engaged in making forays and harassing an enemy.
      3. Any member of such troops.
      4. A kind of halberd or pike; also, a truncheon; a staff.
adjective
  1. Adherent to a party or faction; especially, having the character of blind, passionate, or unreasonable adherence to a party; as, blinded by partisan zeal.
  2. Serving as a partisan in a detached command; as, a partisan officer or corps.
  3. Devoted to or biased in support of a party, group, or cause: partisan politics.
party Tweet Definition of party Like Definition of party on Facebook
noun (wikipedia, party, party (gathering))
(
parti, es)
  1. A social gathering for entertainment and fun.
I'm throwing a huge for my 21st birthday.
  1. A person participating in a contract or legal action.
The contract requires that the of the first part pay the fee.
  1. A legal entity which represents a faction of the people from a country and is united under one specific political platform of issues.
The green took 12% of the vote.
  1. (In 18th & 19th century Britain) A parliamentary faction without a corresponding legal entity.
  2. A group of people travelling or attending an event together, or participating in the same activity.
We're expecting a large from the London office.
verb (parties, partying, partied)
  1. (intransitive) To celebrate at a party, to have fun, to enjoy oneself.
We partied until the early hours.
pasha Tweet Definition of pasha Like Definition of pasha on Facebook
noun (psh'ə, păsh'ə, pəsh')
  1. former title for civil and military officers in the Ottoman Empire.
Patriot Tweet Definition of Patriot Like Definition of Patriot on Facebook
proper noun (wikipedia, MIM-104 Patriot)
  1. A US surface-to-air missile system.
  1. (informal) An individual Patriot missile
patronage Tweet Definition of patronage Like Definition of patronage on Facebook
noun
  1. The act of providing approval and support; backing; championship.
His vigorous of the conservatives got him in trouble with progressives.
  1. customer, Customers collectively; clientele; business.
The restaurant had an upper class .
  1. A communication that indicates lack of respect by patronizing the recipient; condescension; disdain.
  2. (politics) Granting favours or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support.
  3. The business given to a commercial establishment by its customers; trade.
Even before noon there was a considerable .
  1. The people who ride a form of transportation. Synonym of ridership.
verb
  1. To support by being a patron of.
  2. To be a regular customer or client of; to patronize; to patronise; to support; to keep going.
peace dividend Tweet Definition of peace dividend Like Definition of peace dividend on Facebook
noun
  1. an economic benefit gained from a reduction in defence spending, especially a fund of public money that would be available for other purposes
people Tweet Definition of people Like Definition of people on Facebook
noun (collective and common noun; plural peoples)
  1. A body of human beings considered generally or collectively; a group of two or more persons.
  2. (plural peoples) A group of persons forming or belonging to a particular nation, class, ethnic group, country, family, etc; folk; community.
  3. A group of persons regarded as being employees, followers, companions or subjects of a ruler.
verb (peopl, ing)
  1. (transitive) To stock with people or inhabitants; to fill as with people; to populate.
"He would not be alone, who all things can; / But peopled heaven with angels, earth with man." " Dryden
  1. (intransitive) To become populous or populated.
  2. (transitive) To inhabit; to occupy; to populate.
"As thick and numberless / As the gay motes that the sunbeams." " Milton
pioneer Tweet Definition of pioneer Like Definition of pioneer on Facebook
noun
  1. One who goes before, as into the wilderness, preparing the way for others to follow
  2. (context, obsolete, military) A soldier detailed or employed to form roads, dig trenches, and make bridges, as an army advances.
pioneers of civilization; pioneers of reform
  1. (Ireland) a member of the Pioneer Total Abstinence Association, a Catholic group who pledge abstinence from alcohol.
  2. (Russia) A child of 10&ndash;16 years in the former Soviet Union, in the second of the three stages in becoming a member of the Communist Party (after окт~+mn~рёнок and before комомолец).W:Pioneer movement, W
verb
  1. To go before and prepare or open a way for; to act as pioneer.
plank Tweet Definition of plank Like Definition of plank on Facebook
noun
  1. A long, broad and thick piece of sawn timber, heavier and larger than a board.
  2. A political issue that is of concern to a faction or a party of the people and the political position that is taken on that issue.
  3. (British),(slang) A stupid person.
platform Tweet Definition of platform Like Definition of platform on Facebook
noun
  1. A raised stage from which speeches are made and songs are sung.
  2. A political stance on a broad set of issues, which are called planks.
  3. A raised structure from which passengers can enter or leave a train.
  4. (automobiles) A set of components shared by several vehicle models.
  5. (computing) A particular type of operating system or environment such as a database or other specific software, and/or a particular type of computer or microprocessor, used to describe a particular environment for running other software, or for defining a specific software or hardware environment for discussion purposes.
That program runs on an X-Window-System .
Typical PCs use the x86 .''
plebiscite Tweet Definition of plebiscite Like Definition of plebiscite on Facebook
noun
  1. A referendum, especially one that concerns changes in sovereignty
plenipotentiary Tweet Definition of plenipotentiary Like Definition of plenipotentiary on Facebook
noun
  1. A person invested with full power, especially as the agent or ambassador of a sovereign
  • 1985: Two of them are hanging up there on Golgotha, and that ought to be enough to show the authority of Rome"s ah . " Anthony Burgess, Kingdom of the Wicked
adjective
  1. invested with full power
  2. of, or related to a plenipotentiary
(seeCites)      
plenum Tweet Definition of plenum Like Definition of plenum on Facebook
noun (pl2=plena)
  1. A space that is completely filled with matter
  • 1974: He lay on the long stone slant down to the slapping waves, his denim shorts, sneakers, and socks under his head for a pillow, feeling the splendour of distance in all directions, the liquid silence, the of aloneness. " Guy Davenport Tatlin!
    1. A legislative meeting (especially of the Communist Party) in which all members are present
    2. An enclosed space having greater than atmospheric pressure
    3. The space above a false ceiling used for cables, ducts etc
    4. (computing) A type of network cabling which satisfies plenum-ratings issued by the National Electrical Code. These cables are safer in case of a fire, producing less smoke and fumes.
PLO Tweet Definition of PLO Like Definition of PLO on Facebook
initialism
  1. Palestine Liberation Organization
plurality Tweet Definition of plurality Like Definition of plurality on Facebook
noun (pluralities, -)
  1. (language) The state of being plural.
  2. In elections with more than two candidates, the one who receives the largest number, but less than 50% of the votes cast, has a plurality but not a majority. In other words, if the other two, losing, candidates -- together -- have more votes than the winning candidate.
  3. Many.
  4. plurality of spouses, polygamy.
plutocracy Tweet Definition of plutocracy Like Definition of plutocracy on Facebook
noun (plutocrac, ies)
  1. government, Government by the wealthy.
  2. A controlling class of the wealthy.
plutocrat Tweet Definition of plutocrat Like Definition of plutocrat on Facebook
noun
  1. someone who rules by virtue of his or her wealth.
plutocratic Tweet Definition of plutocratic Like Definition of plutocratic on Facebook
adjective
  1. of, relating to, or being a plutocracy
pocket Tweet Definition of pocket Like Definition of pocket on Facebook
noun
  1. A bag stitched to an item of clothing, used for carrying small items.
  2. (context, sports, billiards, snooker, pool) A net or similar struture at each corner, and halfway along the edge, of a billiard table into which balls are to be struck.
  3. An enclosed volume of one substance surrounded by another.
The drilling expedition discovered a pocket of natural gas.
  1. An area of land surrounded by a loop of a river (Australian English)
  2. (aussie-rules) The area of the field to the side of the goal posts (four pockets in total on the field, one to each side of the goals at each end of the ground). The pocket is only a roughly defined area, extending from the behind post, at an angle, to perhaps about 30 metres out.
verb
  1. To put (something) into a pocket.
  2. (context, sports, billiards, snooker, pool) To cause a ball to go into one of the pockets of the table.
  3. (slang) To take and keep (especially money) that is not one's own.
adjective (no (compar) or (superl))
  1. Of a size suitable for putting into a pocket.
pocket dictionary
policy Tweet Definition of policy Like Definition of policy on Facebook
noun (polic, ies)
  1. A plan or course of action, especially one of an organization or government
    • The Communist Party has a of returning power to the workers
      1. A course of action thought to be prudent or advantageous; hence prudence or sagacity
    • Honesty is the best
      1. A contract of insurance
    • Your insurance covers fire and theft only.
      1. (obsolete)an illegal lottery in late nineteenth and early twentieth century USA (no plural)
    • Some players frequented shops
      1. A statement of requirement, often used in an organisation to instruct personnel as to a specific course of action.
politic Tweet Definition of politic Like Definition of politic on Facebook
adjective
  1. shrewd, prudent and expedient
  2. discreet and diplomatic
  3. artful, crafty or cunning
  4. politics
political Tweet Definition of political Like Definition of political on Facebook
adjective
  1. concerning or related to politics
  2. motivated (esp. inappropriately) by political calculation
  3. of or related to views about social relationships that involve power or authority
political science Tweet Definition of political science Like Definition of political science on Facebook
noun
  1. The systematic study of government and politics
politician Tweet Definition of politician Like Definition of politician on Facebook
noun
  1. One engaged in the politics, especially an elected or appointed government official.
  2. An expert in the work of governments, a political scientist.
  3. One engaged in party politics.
politicize Tweet Definition of politicize Like Definition of politicize on Facebook
verb (politiciz, ing)
  1. (intransitive) To discuss politics
  2. (transitive) To give something political characteristics; to turn into a political issue
  3. (transitive) To make someone politically active or aware
politicking Tweet Definition of politicking Like Definition of politicking on Facebook
noun
  1. The act of engaging in politics, or in political campaigning
politico Tweet Definition of politico Like Definition of politico on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, derogatory, slang) A bad politician.
politics Tweet Definition of politics Like Definition of politics on Facebook
noun
  1. The practice of responding to conflict with dialogue.
  2. Set of policies relating to governmental and legal matters
I don"t like his politics.
  1. campaigning, Campaigning or arguing for a set of policies, or maneuvering for power
I want to go into politics.
  1. The study of disputes between rival political factions.
Favoritism is the only use of politics. Richard L Kempe
  1. Political affairs of life, party politics, local politics.
He"s thinking of going into politics, e.g., trying to become a Member of Parliament.
  1. Political views or beliefs.
What are your politics?
  1. rivalry between political parties
They"re not concerned with welfare: it"s all politics!
poll Tweet Definition of poll Like Definition of poll on Facebook
noun
  1. An election or a survey of a particular group.
The student council had a to see what people want served in the cafeteria.
The network hub polled the department's computers to determine which ones could still respond.
  1. a place voters cast ballots
The polls close at 8 p.m.
  1. Hair
    • 1883: w:Robert Louis Stevenson, Robert Louis Stevenson, w:Treasure Island, Treasure Island
    • : ...the doctor, as if to hear better, had taken off his powdered wig, and sat there, looking very strange indeed with his own close-cropped black .
verb
  1. (transitive) To solicit mock votes from (a person or group).
polyarchy Tweet Definition of polyarchy Like Definition of polyarchy on Facebook
noun
  1. A government by many persons, of whatever order or class.
popular Tweet Definition of popular Like Definition of popular on Facebook
adjective
  1. Of or pertaining to the common people, or to the whole body of the people, as distinguished from a select portion; as, the popular voice; popular elections.
states - w:Francis Bacon
So the vote inclines. - w:John Milton
The commonly held in estimation are greatest at a distance. - w:John Henry Newman
  1. Suitable to common people; easy to be comprehended; not abstruse; familiar; plain.
Homilies are plain popular instructions. - w:Richard Hooker
  1. Adapted to the means of the common people; possessed or obtainable by the many; hence, cheap; common; ordinary; inferior; as, popular prices; popular amusements.
The smallest figs, called figs, . . . are, of all others, the basest and of least account. - Holland?.
  1. Beloved or approved by the people; pleasing to people in general, or to many people; as, a popular preacher; a popular law; a popular administration.
  2. (rare) Devoted to the common people; studious of the favor of the populace.
Such humanity is treason. - w:Joseph Addison
  1. (obsolete) Prevailing among the people; epidemic; as, a popular disease. - w:Samuel Johnson
populism Tweet Definition of populism Like Definition of populism on Facebook
noun
  1. (philosophy) A political doctrine or philosophy that proposes that the rights and powers of ordinary people are exploited by a privileged elite, and supports their struggle to overcome this.
portfolio Tweet Definition of portfolio Like Definition of portfolio on Facebook
noun
  1. a case for carrying papers, drawings, photographs, maps and other flat documents
  2. the collection of such documents, especially the works of an artist or photographer
  3. the post and the responsibilities of a cabinet minister or other head of a government department
  4. the group of investments and other assets held by an investor
possession Tweet Definition of possession Like Definition of possession on Facebook
noun
  1. Ownership.
  2. Something that is owned.
  3. A territory under the rule of another country.
  4. The condition or affliction of being possessed by a demon or other supernatural entity.
preamble Tweet Definition of preamble Like Definition of preamble on Facebook
noun
  1. a short preliminary statement or remark, especially an explanatory introduction to a formal document or statute
precinct Tweet Definition of precinct Like Definition of precinct on Facebook
noun
  1. (especially in the plural) An enclosed space having defined limits, normally marked by walls
    1. A subdivision of a city under the jurisdiction of a specific group of police; the police station situated in that district
    2. A subdivision of a city or town for the purposes of voting and representation in city or town government. In cities, Precincts may be grouped into of wards
prefect Tweet Definition of prefect Like Definition of prefect on Facebook
noun
  1. An official of ancient Rome.
  2. The head of a department in France.
  3. A school pupil in a position of power over other pupils.
  4. A commander.
prefecture Tweet Definition of prefecture Like Definition of prefecture on Facebook
noun
  1. The office, position, or jurisdiction of a prefect; also, his official residence.
  2. The district governed by a prefect (especially in France and Japan)
premier Tweet Definition of premier Like Definition of premier on Facebook
noun
  1. The head of a country's cabinet, see Prime minister.
  2. (Australia, Canada) The head of a state or provincial government.
  3. (context, nautical, slang) the first lieutenant or other second-in-command officer of a ship
adjective
  1. Foremost, very first or very highest in quality or degree.
presidency Tweet Definition of presidency Like Definition of presidency on Facebook
noun (presidencies)
  1. The office or role of president.
After many years as a party leader, she finally ascended to the .
  1. The bureaucratic organization and governmental initiatives devolving directly from the president.
Because of the president's lame duck status, the was often hampered by congressional actions.
  1. The time during which one is president; a president's term of office.
In France, a lasts for five years.
Ernest was a historian specializing in the of Herbert Hoover.
president Tweet Definition of president Like Definition of president on Facebook
noun
  1. The head of state of a republic, a representative democracy and sometimes (in cases of constitutional violations) a dictatorship.
  2. The primary leader of a corporation. Not to be confused with CEO, which is a related but separate position that is sometimes held by a different person.
presidium Tweet Definition of presidium Like Definition of presidium on Facebook
noun (pl=presidia, pl2=presidiums)
  1. A permanent executive committee used primarily in Communist countries of which has the power to act for a larger governing body.
  2. Such an executive committee headed by the President of the Supreme Soviet.
prime minister Tweet Definition of prime minister Like Definition of prime minister on Facebook
noun (pluralprime ministers)
  1. In a Westminster-style democracy, the chief member of the cabinet and head of the government; usually the leader of the majority party.
This is a list of all prime ministers since Churchill.
Yesterday we had a visit from the Prime Minister. (See usage notes.)
prince Tweet Definition of prince Like Definition of prince on Facebook
noun
  1. male ruler or head of a principality
  2. son or male-line grandson of a reigning prince, king, queen, emperor, or empress, or another type of monarch
  3. (metaphorical) great person
"He is a prince among men."
princess Tweet Definition of princess Like Definition of princess on Facebook
noun
  1. The female monarch, or wife of a ruler, of a principality.
"Princess Grace was the Princess of Monaco."
  1. The daughter of a king, queen, emperor, empress, prince, or another princess.
  2. A beloved girl considered dainty; used as a term of endearment
  3. A young woman considered vain or selfish; a prima donna
"You're a real ." (said disdainfully)
  1. Princess seam is a seam with the line going over the bust
principality Tweet Definition of principality Like Definition of principality on Facebook
noun (principalities)
  1. A region or sovereign nation headed by a prince or princess.
  2. (Biblical tradition) in Christian angelology, the fifth level of angels, ranked above powers and below dominions.
  3. Wales.
privy council Tweet Definition of privy council Like Definition of privy council on Facebook
noun
  1. A body of advisers to a sovereign functioning much as a cabinet.
  2. The British Privy Council.
Progressive Tweet Definition of Progressive Like Definition of Progressive on Facebook
proper noun
  1. A member or supporter of a Progressive Party
Prohibition Tweet Definition of Prohibition Like Definition of Prohibition on Facebook
proper noun
  1. (history) any of several periods during which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages were restricted or illegal