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Glossary of Biochemistry Terms
beginning with letter P
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papain Tweet Definition of papain Like Definition of papain on Facebook
  1. A proteolytic enzyme in papaya fruit. May aid in digestion and have other health benefits.
pathway Tweet Definition of pathway Like Definition of pathway on Facebook
  1. A footpath or other path or track
  1. (biochemistry) A sequence of biochemical compounds, and the reactions linking them, that describe a process in metabolism or catabolism
pectin Tweet Definition of pectin Like Definition of pectin on Facebook
  1. A substance extracted from the cell walls of plants, especially of fruits; under acidic conditions it forms a gel. It is often used in processed foods, especially jelly, jellies and jams where it causes thickening (setting).
Apple is rich in and so is often added to other fruits when making jam so it will set.
pepsin Tweet Definition of pepsin Like Definition of pepsin on Facebook
  1. (enzyme) A digestive enzyme that chemically digests, or breaks down, proteins into shorter chains of amino acids.
peptide Tweet Definition of peptide Like Definition of peptide on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) A class of organic compounds consisting of various numbers of amino acids in which the amine of one is reacted with the carboxylic acid of the next to form an amide bond.
  2. (biochemistry) the peptide bond itself.
peptide bond Tweet Definition of peptide bond Like Definition of peptide bond on Facebook
  1. (chemistry) An amide bond formed between the amino and carboxyl functional groups of separate amino acids
  2. (biochemistry) The primary linkage of amino acids in proteins
peptone Tweet Definition of peptone Like Definition of peptone on Facebook
  1. (protein) Any water soluble product, a mixture of polypeptides and amino acids formed by the partial hydrolysis of protein.
permease Tweet Definition of permease Like Definition of permease on Facebook
  1. (enzyme) Any of several enzymes that transport membrane proteins.
peroxidase Tweet Definition of peroxidase Like Definition of peroxidase on Facebook
  1. Any of a class of enzymes that act on substrates such as hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
phenylalanine Tweet Definition of phenylalanine Like Definition of phenylalanine on Facebook
  1. (amino acid) An essential amino acid C9H11NO2 found in most animal proteins; it is essential for growth; the inability to metabolize it leads to phenylketonuria; it is a constituent of aspartame.
phosphatase Tweet Definition of phosphatase Like Definition of phosphatase on Facebook
  1. (enzyme) Any of several enzymes that hydrolyze phosphate esters, and are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides and phospholipids, and in the formation of bone.
phosphatide Tweet Definition of phosphatide Like Definition of phosphatide on Facebook
  1. (chemistry) a phospholipid
phospholipase Tweet Definition of phospholipase Like Definition of phospholipase on Facebook
  1. (enzyme) Any of several enzymes that hydrolyze the phosphate ester bonds of phospholipids.
phosphoprotein Tweet Definition of phosphoprotein Like Definition of phosphoprotein on Facebook
  1. (protein) Any protein containing bound phosphate.
photophosphorylation Tweet Definition of photophosphorylation Like Definition of photophosphorylation on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) photosynthetic phosphorylation
photoreactivation Tweet Definition of photoreactivation Like Definition of photoreactivation on Facebook
  1. The reactivation of something by light
photosynthate Tweet Definition of photosynthate Like Definition of photosynthate on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) Any compound that is a product of photosynthesis
photosynthesis Tweet Definition of photosynthesis Like Definition of photosynthesis on Facebook
  1. (biology) The process by which plants and other autotrophs generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy in chloroplasts.
phytosterol Tweet Definition of phytosterol Like Definition of phytosterol on Facebook
  1. (context, steroid, botany) A group of steroid alcohols, phytochemicals naturally occurring in plants. They are white powders with mild, characteristic odor, insoluble in water and soluble in alcohols.
plastoquinone Tweet Definition of plastoquinone Like Definition of plastoquinone on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) a quinone, related to the carotenoids, involved in the electron transport process of photosynthesis
polymerase Tweet Definition of polymerase Like Definition of polymerase on Facebook
  1. (enzyme) Any of various enzymes that catalyze the formation of polymers of DNA or RNA using an existing strand of DNA or RNA as a template.
polynucleotide Tweet Definition of polynucleotide Like Definition of polynucleotide on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) A polymeric macromolecule composed of many nucleotides; examples include DNA and RNA
polypeptide Tweet Definition of polypeptide Like Definition of polypeptide on Facebook
  1. (protein) A small protein containing up to 100 amino acids.
porphyrin Tweet Definition of porphyrin Like Definition of porphyrin on Facebook
  1. (chemistry) A class of heterocyclic compounds containing four pyrrole rings arranged in a square; they are important in biochemistry in a form with a metal atom in the central cavity (hemoglobin with iron, chlorophyll with magnesium etc).
positive Tweet Definition of positive Like Definition of positive on Facebook
  1. A thing capable of being affirmed; something real or actual.
  2. A favourable point or characteristic.
  3. Something having a value in physics, such as an electric charge.
  4. (grammar) An adjective or adverb in the degree.
  5. (context, photography) A image; one that displays true colors and shades, as opposed to a negative.
  1. Definitively laid down; explicitly stated; clearly expressed, precise, emphatic.
    • Bacon:
    • : Positive words, that he would not bear arms against King Edward"s son.
      1. Fully assured, confident; certain.
      I"m absolutely you've spelt that wrong.
      1. Overconfident, dogmatic.
    • Pope:
    • : Some , persisting fops we know, That, if once wrong, will needs be always so.
      1. (grammar) Describing the primary sense of an adjective or adverb; not comparative or superlative.
      "Better" is an irregular comparative of the form "good".
      1. Derived from an object by itself; not dependent on changing circumstances or relations; absolute.
      The idea of beauty is not , but depends on the different tastes of individuals.
      1. Wholly what is expressed; colloquially downright, entire, outright.
      Good lord, you've built up a arsenal of weaponry here.
      1. Characterised by the existence or presence of qualities or features, rather than by their absence.
      The box was not empty " I felt some substance within it.
      1. Characterised by the presence of features which support a hypothesis.
      The results of our experiment are .
      1. Characterised by affirmation, constructiveness, or influence for the better; favourable.
      He has a outlook on life.
      The first-night reviews were largely .
    • Swift:
    • : a voice in legislation.
      1. (context, chiefly, philosophy) actual, Actual, real, concrete.
    • Bacon:
    • : Positive good.
      1. (photography) Of a visual image, true to the original in light, shade and colour values.
      A photograph can be developed from a photographic negative.
      1. (physics) Having more protons than electrons.
      A cation is a positive ion as it has more protons than electrons.
      1. (slang) HIV positive.
progesterone Tweet Definition of progesterone Like Definition of progesterone on Facebook
  1. (steroid hormone) A steroid hormone, secreted by the ovaries, whose function is to prepare the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized ovum and to maintain pregnancy.
  2. (steroid drug) A synthetic version of the compound, used in contraceptive pills and other pharmaceutical products.
proline Tweet Definition of proline Like Definition of proline on Facebook
  1. (amino acid) A nonessential amino acid C5H9NO2 found in most animal proteins, especially collagen; its cyclic structure leads to kinks in the peptide chain of proteins.
prostaglandin Tweet Definition of prostaglandin Like Definition of prostaglandin on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) Any of a group of naturally occurring lipids derived from the C20 acid prostanoic acid; they have a number of physiological functions and may be considered to be hormones.
    • 2001: This enzyme generates an inflammatory mediator known as , which triggers pain and other aspects of inflammation. " Leslie Iversen, Drugs: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford 2001, p. 51)
protamine Tweet Definition of protamine Like Definition of protamine on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) any of a class of proteins, rich in arginine, found in the sperm of fish; used medicinally to control the action of insulin
protease Tweet Definition of protease Like Definition of protease on Facebook
  1. (enzyme) An enzyme that cuts or cleaves proteins.
protein Tweet Definition of protein Like Definition of protein on Facebook
  1. (context, nutrition) One of three major classes of food or source of food energy (4 kcal/gram) abundant in animal-derived foods (ie: meat) and some vegetables, such as legumes. see carbohydrate and fat for the other two major classes
  2. (biochemistry) A large, complex molecule composed of long chains of amino acids linked by a peptide bond
proteolysis Tweet Definition of proteolysis Like Definition of proteolysis on Facebook
  1. (biochemistry) The hydrolysis of proteins into peptides and amino acids; especially as part of the digestion of food.
PTC Tweet Definition of PTC Like Definition of PTC on Facebook
  1. Positive temperature coefficient device. (electronics)
  2. Pre-Trial Conference
pyranose Tweet Definition of pyranose Like Definition of pyranose on Facebook
  1. (chemistry) any cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide having a six-membered ring (based on tetrahydropyran)
pyrimidine Tweet Definition of pyrimidine Like Definition of pyrimidine on Facebook
  1. (chemistry) Any of a class of aromatic heterocyclic compounds containing a ring of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms; especially the simplest one, C4H4N2, and three of the bases found in DNA and RNA, thymine, uracil and cytosine .

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