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Glossary of Chemistry Terms
beginning with letter O
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O Tweet Definition of O Like Definition of O on Facebook
noun
  1. The fifteenth letter of the Appendix:Roman script, English alphabet, preceded by N and followed by P.
  2. A blood type that has no antigens and may only receive type O blood and nothing else, but may donate to all.
abbreviation
  1. (cricket) The number of overs bowled.
occlude Tweet Definition of occlude Like Definition of occlude on Facebook
verb (occlud, ing)
  1. To obstruct, cover, or otherwise block an opening.
octad Tweet Definition of octad Like Definition of octad on Facebook
noun
  1. a group of eight things
octane Tweet Definition of octane Like Definition of octane on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) Any of the eighteen isomeric aliphatic hydrocarbons (C8H18) found in petroleum, especially an iso-octane 2,2,4 trimethyl-pentane; they are used as fuels and solvents
octane number Tweet Definition of octane number Like Definition of octane number on Facebook
noun
  1. a measure of the antiknock properties of an automobile fuel; isooctane having an octane number of 100, a fuel with the same antiknock properties as a mixture of 90% isooctane and 10% heptane having an octane number of 90
octavalent Tweet Definition of octavalent Like Definition of octavalent on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) having a valence of 8
oil Tweet Definition of oil Like Definition of oil on Facebook
noun
  1. liquid, Liquid fat.
  2. petroleum, Petroleum-based liquid used as fuel or lubricant.
verb
  1. (transitive) to lubricate with oil
  2. (transitive) to grease with oil for cooking
oil of wintergreen Tweet Definition of oil of wintergreen Like Definition of oil of wintergreen on Facebook
noun
  1. The aromatic oil obtained from the berries of the wintergreen plant; mostly methyl salicylate; used medicinally and in perfumes
oily Tweet Definition of oily Like Definition of oily on Facebook
adjective (oilier, oiliest)
  1. Relating to oil.
  2. Smeared with or containing oil.
  3. (figurative) Excessively friendly or polite so as to sound insincere.
oleate Tweet Definition of oleate Like Definition of oleate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any salt or ester of oleic acid
olefin Tweet Definition of olefin Like Definition of olefin on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any of a class of unsaturated open-chain hydrocarbons such as ethylene; an alkene with only one carbon-carbon double bond.
oleic acid Tweet Definition of oleic acid Like Definition of oleic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. an unsaturated fatty acid found in olive oil and very many other vegetable and animal oils and fats; it is used for making soap, cosmetics etc.
  1. (chemistry) cis-9-octadecenoic acid
oleum Tweet Definition of oleum Like Definition of oleum on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic compound) A solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid.
oligomer Tweet Definition of oligomer Like Definition of oligomer on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a compound intermediate between a monomer and a polymer, normally having a specified number of units between about five and a hundred.
oligosaccharide Tweet Definition of oligosaccharide Like Definition of oligosaccharide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a polysaccharide of low molecular weight, being a polymer of between three and seven monosaccharide units
optical activity Tweet Definition of optical activity Like Definition of optical activity on Facebook
noun (wikipedia, optical rotation)
  1. (chemistry) a property caused by asymmetrical molecular or crystal structure that enables a compound or crystal to rotate the plane of incident polarized light
optical isomer Tweet Definition of optical isomer Like Definition of optical isomer on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) either one of a number of compounds that exhibit optical isomerism
orcein Tweet Definition of orcein Like Definition of orcein on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a dye, related to litmus, that is extracted from the lichen Rocella tinctoria; used as a microscopic stain and as a food colouring
orchil Tweet Definition of orchil Like Definition of orchil on Facebook
noun
  1. Any of several lichens, especially those of the genera Roccella and Lecanora.
  2. The dye, orcein, extracted from them.
organic Tweet Definition of organic Like Definition of organic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (biology) pertaining to, derived from, like, of the nature of, an organ of the body
  2. (chemistry) relating to the compounds of carbon, relating to natural products
  3. of food or food products, grown in an environment free from artificial agro-chemicals, and possibly certified organic by a regulatory body.
  4. (sociology) a form of social solidarity theorized by Emile Durkheim that is characterized by voluntary engagements in complex interdepencies for mutual benefit (such as business agreements), rather than mechanical solidarity, which depends on ascribed relations between people (as in a family or tribe).
organic chemistry Tweet Definition of organic chemistry Like Definition of organic chemistry on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) The chemistry of carbon-containing compounds, especially those that occur naturally in living organisms.
organometallic Tweet Definition of organometallic Like Definition of organometallic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) of, or relating to organic compounds having a metal atom directly bonded to a carbon atom
organosilicon Tweet Definition of organosilicon Like Definition of organosilicon on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) describing any of a series of derivatives of silicon that have at least one alkyl or aryl group, especially one containing at least one carbon-silicon bond
OS Tweet Definition of OS Like Definition of OS on Facebook
initialism
  1. Ordnance Survey
  2. operating system
  3. oculus sinister () - left eye
  4. outsize
osmium Tweet Definition of osmium Like Definition of osmium on Facebook
noun
  1. a heavy metallic chemical element (symbol Os) with an atomic number of 76.
osmium tetroxide Tweet Definition of osmium tetroxide Like Definition of osmium tetroxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) an oxide of the metal osmium, OsO?4; it is very poisonous, has a pungent smell and can cause blindness; it is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is used to stain biological materials
osmotic pressure Tweet Definition of osmotic pressure Like Definition of osmotic pressure on Facebook
noun
  1. (physics) The hydrostatic pressure exerted by a solution across a semipermeable membrane from a pure solvent; the pressure needed to counteract osmosis
outgas Tweet Definition of outgas Like Definition of outgas on Facebook
verb
  1. To release gaseous substances into the air, especially of a polymer material as it is aged or heated.
oxalic Tweet Definition of oxalic Like Definition of oxalic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Pertaining to, derived from, or contained in, sorrel, or oxalis; specifically, an acid found in, and characteristic of, oxalis.
oxalic acid Tweet Definition of oxalic acid Like Definition of oxalic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) A colourless, crystalline poisonous dicarboxylic acid, (COOH)2, found in rhubarb, spinach and other plants, often as crystals of the calcium salt.
oxidant Tweet Definition of oxidant Like Definition of oxidant on Facebook
noun
  1. an oxidizing agent
oxidate Tweet Definition of oxidate Like Definition of oxidate on Facebook
verbto oxidate
  1. (obsolete),(chemistry) to oxidize
oxidation Tweet Definition of oxidation Like Definition of oxidation on Facebook
noun
  1. The combination of a substance with oxygen.
  2. (chemistry) A reaction in which the atoms of an element lose electrons and the valence of the element increases.
oxidation state Tweet Definition of oxidation state Like Definition of oxidation state on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the state of an atom having a particular oxidation number
oxide Tweet Definition of oxide Like Definition of oxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A binary chemical compound of oxygen with another chemical element.
oxidimetry Tweet Definition of oxidimetry Like Definition of oxidimetry on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any form of volumetric analysis using an oxidizing agent such as potassium permanganate
oxidize Tweet Definition of oxidize Like Definition of oxidize on Facebook
verb (oxidizes, oxidizing, oxidized)
  1. (chemistry, transitive) To combine with oxygen or otherwise make an oxide.
  2. (chemistry) To increase the valence (or the positive charge) of an element by removing electrons.
  3. To coat something with an oxide.
  4. (intransitive) To become oxidized.
oxidizer Tweet Definition of oxidizer Like Definition of oxidizer on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) An oxidizing agent, especially one used to oxidize the fuel of a rocket or a fuel cell
oxidizing agent Tweet Definition of oxidizing agent Like Definition of oxidizing agent on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any substance that oxidizes, or receives electrons from, another; in so doing, it becomes reduced
oxime Tweet Definition of oxime Like Definition of oxime on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any of a class of organic compounds, of general formula RR'C=NOH, derived from the condensation of an aldehyde (R' = H) or ketone with hydroxylamine.
oxy- Tweet Definition of oxy- Like Definition of oxy- on Facebook
prefix
  1. Concerning oxygen
  2. Sharp, keen, acute, pungent, acid
oxyacetylene Tweet Definition of oxyacetylene Like Definition of oxyacetylene on Facebook
noun
  1. A mixture of oxygen and acetylene; burns at a high temperature and is used for cutting and welding metals.
adjective
  1. Using this mixture e.g. an oxyacetylene torch
oxyacid Tweet Definition of oxyacid Like Definition of oxyacid on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) An acid containing oxygen, as opposed to a hydracid.
oxychloride Tweet Definition of oxychloride Like Definition of oxychloride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A ternary compound of oxygen and chlorine.
oxygen Tweet Definition of oxygen Like Definition of oxygen on Facebook
noun
  1. A chemical element (symbol O) with an atomic number of 8 and relative atomic mass of 15.9994.
  2. An atom of this element.
  3. Molecular oxygen (O2), a colorless, odorless gas at room temperature.
  4. (medicine) A mixture of oxygen and other gases, administered to a patient to help him or her to breathe.
oxygenize Tweet Definition of oxygenize Like Definition of oxygenize on Facebook
verb (oxygenizes, oxygenizing, oxygenized)
  1. To oxidize.
  2. To oxygenate.
oxyhydrogen Tweet Definition of oxyhydrogen Like Definition of oxyhydrogen on Facebook
adjective
  1. of, or using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen
ozonide Tweet Definition of ozonide Like Definition of ozonide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the univalent anion, O3-, derived from ozone
  2. (chemistry) any dark red salt of this anion and a metal
  3. (chemistry) any of a number of explosive organic compounds containing a -O-O-O- group
  4. (chemistry) any of a class of heterocycles, containing two carbon atoms (in positions 3 and 5) and three oxygen atoms (in positions 1, 2 and 4) produced by the reaction of ozone with a carbon to carbon double bond; the 1,2,4-trioxolanes

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