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Glossary of Chemistry Terms
beginning with letter B
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B Tweet Definition of B Like Definition of B on Facebook
noun
  1. A personality type of someone who is relaxed and easygoing and able to engage in leisure activities without worrying about work.
  2. The quantity one billion (1,000,000,000), usually used to signify a sum of money, e.g. $2.8 B = $2,800,000,000.
  3. An academic grade, better than a C and worse than an A
abbreviation
  1. (cricket) the number of balls faced by a batsman
BA Tweet Definition of BA Like Definition of BA on Facebook
initialism
  1. Bachelor of Arts
  2. British Airways
  3. Buenos Aires
  4. (overprint on British stamps) British Administration (usually followed by a place name).
baking soda Tweet Definition of baking soda Like Definition of baking soda on Facebook
noun
  1. Common name for sodium bicarbonate.
balloon Tweet Definition of balloon Like Definition of balloon on Facebook
noun
  1. An inflatable buoyant object, often (but not necessarily) round and flexible.
  2. Such an object as a child"s toy.
  3. Such an object designed to transport people through the air.
  4. (medicine) A sac inserted into part of the body for therapeutic reasons; such as angioplasty.
  5. A speech bubble.
verb
  1. (transitive) To increase or expand rapidly.
His stomach ballooned from eating such a large meal.
Prices will if we don't act quickly.
barium Tweet Definition of barium Like Definition of barium on Facebook
noun
  1. a metallic chemical element (symbol Ba) with an atomic number of 56.
Bath Tweet Definition of Bath Like Definition of Bath on Facebook
proper noun
  1. A city in England, famous for its bath, baths fed by a hot spring.
  2. (rare): Abbreviated name for the Arab Socialist Baath Party, a secular Arab nationalist political party present in several countries in the Mid-East, most prominently Iraq and Syria.
BE Tweet Definition of BE Like Definition of BE on Facebook
initialism
  1. Bachelor of Engineering.
bead Tweet Definition of bead Like Definition of bead on Facebook
noun
  1. (archaic) prayer, Prayer, later especially with a rosary.
    • 1760: That he must believe in the Pope;"go to Mass;"cross himself;"tell his beads;"be a good Catholick, and that this, in all conscience, was enough to carry him to heaven. " Laurence Sterne, The Life & Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (Penguin 2003, p. 115)
      1. Each in a string of small balls making up the rosary or paternoster.
      2. A small round object with a hole to allow it to be threaded on a cord or wire.
      3. A small drop of water or other liquid.
      beads of sweat
verb
  1. (intransitive) To form into a bead.
The raindrops beaded on the car's waxed finish.
  1. (transitive) To apply beads to.
She spent the morning beading the gown.
  1. (transitive) To form into a bead.
He beaded some solder for the ends of the wire.
bed Tweet Definition of bed Like Definition of bed on Facebook
noun
  1. A piece of furniture, usually flat and soft, to sleep on.
  2. A prepared spot to spend the night in, as in camping bed.
  3. A garden plot, as in "bed of roses".
  4. The bottom of a lake or other body of water, as in "sea bed".
  5. An area where a large number of oysters, mussels, or other sessile shellfish is found.
  6. A flat surface or layer on which something else is to be placed, as a "bed of lettuce".
  7. A deposit of ore, coal etc.
  8. A shaped piece of timber to hold a cask clear of a ship, ship"s floor.
verb (bed, d, ed)
  1. To go to a sleeping bed.
  2. To put oneself to sleep.
  3. To settle, as machinery.
  4. To set in a soft matrix, as paving stones in sand, or tiles in cement.
  5. To set out plants in a garden bed.
  6. (Slang) To have sexual intercourse.
benzene Tweet Definition of benzene Like Definition of benzene on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) An aromatic hydrocarbon of formula C6H6 whose structure consists of a ring of alternate single and double bonds.
benzine Tweet Definition of benzine Like Definition of benzine on Facebook
noun (uncountable)
  1. benzene
  2. any flammable petroleum distillate used as a solvent or fuel
benzoate Tweet Definition of benzoate Like Definition of benzoate on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any salt or ester of benzoic acid.
benzofuran Tweet Definition of benzofuran Like Definition of benzofuran on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any of a class of bicyclic heterocycles consisting of a benzene ring fused with one of furan.
benzoic Tweet Definition of benzoic Like Definition of benzoic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Pertaining to, or obtained from, benzoin.
  2. (organic chemistry) Derived from benzoic acid or its derivatives.
benzoin Tweet Definition of benzoin Like Definition of benzoin on Facebook
noun
  1. A resinous substance, dry and brittle, obtained from the Styrax benzoin, a tree of Sumatra, Java, etc., having a fragrant odor, and slightly aromatic taste. It is used in the preparation of benzoic acid, in medicine, and as a perfume.
  2. (organic compound) A white crystalline substance, C14H12O2, obtained from benzoic aldehyde and some other sources.
  3. (botany) The spicebush, Lindera benzoin
benzol Tweet Definition of benzol Like Definition of benzol on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) An impure benzene, used in the arts as a solvent, and for various other purposes.
benzophenone Tweet Definition of benzophenone Like Definition of benzophenone on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, organic chemistry, countable) Any of a class of aromatic ketones based on the parent compound diphenylketone (C6H5)2CO; used, amongst other things, as ingredients in sunblock.
  2. (context, organic compound, uncountable) The compound diphenylketone.
benzoyl Tweet Definition of benzoyl Like Definition of benzoyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) A compound radical, C6H5.CO; the base of benzoic acid, of the oil of bitter almonds, and of an extensive series of compounds.
benzyl Tweet Definition of benzyl Like Definition of benzyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) A compound radical, C6H5.CH2, related to toluene and benzoic acid; -- commonly used adjectivally.
berkelium Tweet Definition of berkelium Like Definition of berkelium on Facebook
noun
  1. A transuranic chemical element (symbol Bk) with an atomic number of 97.
beryllium Tweet Definition of beryllium Like Definition of beryllium on Facebook
noun
  1. (element) The chemical element with an atomic number of 4; a light metal with specialist industrial applications.
bicarbonate of soda Tweet Definition of bicarbonate of soda Like Definition of bicarbonate of soda on Facebook
noun
  1. sodium bicarbonate
bichloride Tweet Definition of bichloride Like Definition of bichloride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A dichloride.
bimolecular Tweet Definition of bimolecular Like Definition of bimolecular on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) (of a reaction) involving two molecules
    1. consisting of two layers of molecules
binary Tweet Definition of binary Like Definition of binary on Facebook
noun (pluralbinaries)
  1. (context, mathematics, computing) (uncountable) The base-2 number system, which uses only the digits 0 and 1.
  2. (computing) An executable computer file.
  3. (astronomy) A star system consisting of only two stars.
adjective (not comparable)
  1. Being in a state of one of two mutually exclusive conditions, such as on or off, true or false, 6 or not 6, or the presence or absence of an electrical pulse.
Binary states are often abstracted as 1 and 0 in computer science.
  1. Concerning logic whose subject matter concerns binary states.
  2. (context, arithmetic, computing) Concerning numbers and mathematical calculations using the binary number system.
  3. Having two equally important parts.
binary star
binary poison
  1. Related to something with two parts.
A distribution is a statistical distribution with only two categories.
  1. (computing): Refers to data consisting of arbitrary values, as opposed to that which can be interpreted as plain or ASCII text.
He downloaded the distribution for Linux, then burned it to DVD.
binder Tweet Definition of binder Like Definition of binder on Facebook
noun
  1. Someone who binds, particularly someone who binds books; a bookbinder.
  2. A cover or holder for unbound papers, pages etc.
  3. Something that is used to bind things together, often referring to the mechanism that accomplishes this for a book.
  4. Adossier.
  5. (context, agriculture) A machine used in harvesting that ties cut stalks of grain into a bundle.
  6. (chemistry) A chemical that causes two other substances to form into one.
  7. A down payment on a piece of real property that secures the payor the right to purchase the property from the payee upon an agreement of terms.
  8. (Chiefly Minnesota) A rubber band.
biradical Tweet Definition of biradical Like Definition of biradical on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any molecule having two independent radical centres
bismuthic Tweet Definition of bismuthic Like Definition of bismuthic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Of, or containing bismuth in its higher valence.
bismuthine Tweet Definition of bismuthine Like Definition of bismuthine on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any hydrocarbyl derivative of bismuthane
bismuthous Tweet Definition of bismuthous Like Definition of bismuthous on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Of, or containing bismuth in its lower valence.
bisulfide Tweet Definition of bisulfide Like Definition of bisulfide on Facebook
noun
  1. disulfide
bisulfite Tweet Definition of bisulfite Like Definition of bisulfite on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic chemistry) The univalent group -HSO3, or any salt containing it.
bittern Tweet Definition of bittern Like Definition of bittern on Facebook
noun
  1. A bird of the family Ardeidae that lives in marshy areas, feeds on amphibians, reptiles, insects and fish and flies with its neck retracted rather than outstretched.
bitumen Tweet Definition of bitumen Like Definition of bitumen on Facebook
noun (bitumina, pl2=bitumens)
  1. Mineral pitch; a black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame; Jew's pitch, Jew"s pitch. It occurs as an abundant natural product in many places, as on the shores of the Dead and Caspian Seas. It is used in cements, in the construction of pavements, et cetera.
  2. By extension, any one of the natural hydrocarbons, including the hard, solid, brittle varieties called asphalt, the semisolid maltha and mineral tars, the oily petrolea, and even the light, volatile naphthas.
<!-- Bitumen (Page: 149)
Bi
  • tu"men (?), n. L. bitumen: cf. F. bitume. Cf. Béton. 1. Mineral pitch; a black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame; Jew's pitch. It occurs as an abundant natural product in many places, as on the shores of the Dead and Caspian Seas. It is used in cements, in the construction of pavements, etc. See Asphalt. 150 2. By extension, any one of the natural hydrocarbons, including the hard, solid, brittle varieties called asphalt, the semisolid maltha and mineral tars, the oily petroleums, and even the light, volatile naphthas.
    -->
bituminous Tweet Definition of bituminous Like Definition of bituminous on Facebook
adjective
  1. Of or pertaining to bitumen.
blacktop Tweet Definition of blacktop Like Definition of blacktop on Facebook
noun
  1. asphalt concrete, Asphalt concrete, an asphalt-based paving material.
  2. Any bituminous black paving material (e.g., tarmacadam, tarmac)
verb (blacktops, blacktopping, blacktopped, blacktopped)
  1. To pave with blacktop.
The county first blacktopped that road decades ago
adjective
  1. Of or pertaining to blacktop or its uses.
It's a blacktopped road in bad need of repair.
bleach Tweet Definition of bleach Like Definition of bleach on Facebook
noun (es, -)
  1. (uncountable) A chemical, such as sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide, or a preparation of such a chemical, used for disinfecting or whitening.
  2. (countable) A variety of bleach.
bleaching powder Tweet Definition of bleaching powder Like Definition of bleaching powder on Facebook
noun
  1. a white powder, a mixture of calcium hypochlorite and calcium chloride, prepared by the action of chlorine on calcium hydroxide, used as a strong bleaching agent and disinfectant
bond Tweet Definition of bond Like Definition of bond on Facebook
noun
Evidence of a long-term debt, by which the bond issuer (the borrower) is obliged to pay interest when due, and repay the principal at maturity, as specified on the face of the bond certificate. The rights of the holder are specified in the bond indenture, which contains the legal terms and conditions under which the bond was issued. Bonds are available in two forms: registered bonds, and bearer bonds.
  1. A documentary obligation to pay a sum or to perform a contract; a debenture.
Many say that government and corporate bonds are a good investment to balance against a portfolio consisting primarily of stocks.
  1. A physical connection which binds, a band; often plural.
The prisoner was brought before the tribunal in iron bonds.
  1. An emotional link, connection or union.
They had grown up as friends and neighbors, and not even vastly differing political views could break the of their friendship.
  1. (context, chemistry) A link or force between neighbouring atoms in a molecule.
Organic chemistry primarily consists of the study of carbon bonds, in their many variations.
  1. A binding agreement, a covenant.
Herbert resented his wife for subjecting him to the bonds of matrimony; he claimed they had gotten married while drunk.
  1. A sum of money paid as bail or surety.
The bailiff released the prisoner as soon as the was posted.
  1. Any constraining or cementing force or material.
A of superglue adhered the teacups to the ceiling, much to the consternation of the cafe owners.
  1. (context, construction) In building, a specific pattern of bricklaying.
  2. In Scotland, a mortgage.
verb
  1. (transitive) To connect, secure or tie with a bond; to bind.
The gargantuan ape was bonded in iron chains and carted onto the stage.
  1. (transitive) To cause to adhere (one material with another).
The children bonded their snapshots to the scrapbook pages with mucilage.
  1. (context, transitive, chemistry) To form a chemical compound with.
Under unusual conditions, even gold can be made to bond with other elements.
  1. (transitive) To guarantee or secure a financial risk.
The contractor was bonded with a local underwriter.
  1. To form a friendship or emotional connection.
The men had bonded while serving together in Vietnam.
  1. (transitive) To put in a bonded warehouse.
  2. (context, transitive, construction) To lay bricks in a specific pattern.
  3. (context, transitive, electricity) To make a reliable electrical connection between two conductors (or any pieces of metal that may potentially become conductors).
A house's distribution panel should always be bonded to the grounding rods via a panel bond.
boracic Tweet Definition of boracic Like Definition of boracic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (inorganic chemistry) Of or relating to boron alias borax.
borane Tweet Definition of borane Like Definition of borane on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any binary compound of boron and hydrogen
borate Tweet Definition of borate Like Definition of borate on Facebook
noun
  1. A salt formed by the combination of boric acid with a base or positive radical.
borax Tweet Definition of borax Like Definition of borax on Facebook
noun
  1. A white or gray/grey crystalline salt, with a slight alkaline taste, used as a flux, in soldering metals, making enamels, fixing colors/colours on porcelain, and as a soap etc
  2. (chemistry) the sodium salt of boric acid, Na2B4O7, either anhydrous or with 5 or 10 molecules of water of crystallisation; sodium tetraborate
adjective
  1. cheap or tawdry, referring to furniture or other works of industrial design Persian derivations
boric Tweet Definition of boric Like Definition of boric on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Of, pertaining to, or containing the element boron.
boric acid Tweet Definition of boric acid Like Definition of boric acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) H3BO3; B(OH)3; a white crystalline solid, soluble in hot water to form a weak acid. Used as a mild antiseptic, flame retardant, insecticide and in the manufacture of borax and other borate salts.
  2. (chemistry) A hydrate of boric oxide, specifically any of the three acids orthoboric acid, metaboric acid or pyroboric acid.
boric oxide Tweet Definition of boric oxide Like Definition of boric oxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) A white solid, of empirical formula B2O3, that is an inorganic polymer, and in making glass, enamel and for synthesizing other boron compounds.
boride Tweet Definition of boride Like Definition of boride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the B3&minus; anion
  2. (chemistry) any binary compound of boron and a more electropositive element
borohydride Tweet Definition of borohydride Like Definition of borohydride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) an anion, BH4-, and any corresponding salt such as sodium borohydride; a very strong reducing agent
boron Tweet Definition of boron Like Definition of boron on Facebook
noun
  1. The chemical element (symbol B) with an atomic number of 5; a metalloid
boron carbide Tweet Definition of boron carbide Like Definition of boron carbide on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic compound) A binary compound of boron and carbon, B4C, that is a very hard ceramic, and is used in tank armour, bulletproof vests etc.
boron nitride Tweet Definition of boron nitride Like Definition of boron nitride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) A binary compound of boron and nitrogen, of empirical formula BN; exists in forms analagous to the allotropes of carbon, many of which are inorganic polymers.
boron oxide Tweet Definition of boron oxide Like Definition of boron oxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) The compound boron trioxide.
borosilicate Tweet Definition of borosilicate Like Definition of borosilicate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) Any of various minerals whose structure is formally that of a dual salt of boric acid, boric and silicic acids.
bottom Tweet Definition of bottom Like Definition of bottom on Facebook
noun
  1. The lowest part from the uppermost part, in either of these senses:
  1. The part furthest in the direction toward which an unsupported object would fall.
  2. The part seen, or intended to be seen, nearest the edge of the visual field normally occupied by the lowest visible objects, as "footers appear at the bottoms of pages".
    1. (euphemism) The buttocks or anus.
    2. (baseball) The second half of an inning, the home team's turn to bat.
    3. A submissive in a BDSM relationship or roleplay.
    4. (gay sexual slang) A gay man who likes take a passive sexual role rather than an active role (e.g. to be penetrated in anal sex rather than to penetrate).
    5. (nautical)
  3. a cargo vessel, a ship.
  4. certain parts of a vessel, particularly the cargo hold or the portion of the ship that is always underwater.
verb
  1. To fall to the lowest point.
John J. Murphy, Intermarket Analysis: Profiting from Global Market Relationships (2004) p. 119:
:The Dow Jones Industrial Average bottomed on September 24, 2001. The CRB Index bottomed on October 24.
  1. To be the source of support or authority for something.
United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative Law, Executive Orders and Presidential Directives, (2001) p.59.
:Moreover, the Supreme Court has held that the President must obey outstanding executive orders, even when bottomed on the Constitution, until they are revoked.
  1. To be the submissive in a BDSM relationship or roleplay.
adjective
  1. The lowest or last place or position.
''Those files should go on the shelf.
BR Tweet Definition of BR Like Definition of BR on Facebook
initialism
  1. Bed Room
    1. (roadway) Business Route
bridge Tweet Definition of bridge Like Definition of bridge on Facebook
noun
  1. A construction or natural feature that spans a divide.
The rope crosses the river.
  1. (anatomy) The upper bony ridge of the human nose.
Rugby players often break the of their noses.
  1. (dentistry) A prosthesis replacing one or several adjacent tooth, teeth.
The dentist pulled out the decayed tooth and put in a .
  1. (nautical) An elevated platform above the upper deck of a mechanically propelled ship from which it is navigated and from which all activities on deck can be seen and controlled by the captain, etc; smaller ships have a wheelhouse, and sailing ships were controlled from a quarterdeck.
The first officer is on the .
  1. (music) The piece, on string instruments, that support the strings from the sounding board.
  2. (computing) A device which connects two or more computer bus, buses, typically in a transparent manner.
This chip is the between the front-side bus and the I/O bus.
  1. (communication) A system which connects two or more LAN, local area networks at layer 2.
The LAN uses a spanning tree algorithm.
  1. (music) A song contained within another song, often demarcated by meter, key, or melody.
The lyrics in the song's inverted its meaning.
  1. (chemistry) A valence bond, atom or chain of atoms that connects two different parts of a molecule; the atoms so connected being bridgeheads.
  2. (electronics) An unintended solder connection between two or more components or pins.
  3. (electronics) Any of several electrical devices that measure characteristics such as impedance and inductance by balancing different parts of a circuit
  4. (billiards, snooker, pool) A particular form of one hand placed on the table to support the cue when making a shot in cue sports.
verb (bridg, ing)
  1. To be or make a bridge over something.
With enough cable, we can this gorge.
  1. (idiomatic) To span as if with a bridge.
The two groups were able to their differences.
brine Tweet Definition of brine Like Definition of brine on Facebook
noun
  1. salt water; water saturated or strongly impregnated with salt; a salt and water solution for pickling
Do you want a can of tuna in oil or in brine?
  1. the sea or ocean; the water of the sea
verb (brin, ing)
  1. (transitive) To preserve food in a salt solution.
bromate Tweet Definition of bromate Like Definition of bromate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any salt of bromic acid
bromic Tweet Definition of bromic Like Definition of bromic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) of, or relating to bromine or its compounds, especially those in which it has a valency of five
bromic acid Tweet Definition of bromic acid Like Definition of bromic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic compound) A corrosive colourless liquid, HBrO?3; it is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and some dyes; it reacts with bases to form bromates.
bromine Tweet Definition of bromine Like Definition of bromine on Facebook
noun
  1. a nonmetallic chemical element (symbol Br) with an atomic number of 35; one of the halogens
brucine Tweet Definition of brucine Like Definition of brucine on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) An alkaloid, related to strychnine, found in nux vomica.
bubbler Tweet Definition of bubbler Like Definition of bubbler on Facebook