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Glossary of Chemistry Terms
beginning with letter C
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C Tweet Definition of C Like Definition of C on Facebook
noun
  1. (computing) A particular high-level programming language.
  2. (slang) $100; a c-note.
  3. (music) A musical note; middle c.
  4. An academic grade better than a D and worse than a B.
proper noun
  1. Head of the Secret Intelligence Service, incorrectly identified in the James Bond literature as "M" ("C" during WW2 was Col. Stewart Menzies - from whence "M")
c. Tweet Definition of c. Like Definition of c. on Facebook
abbreviation
  1. (context, preposition) circa
The document was written in the Middle Ages, 1250.
  1. (context, noun) city
CA Tweet Definition of CA Like Definition of CA on Facebook
abbreviation
  1. California, a state of the United States of America.
  2. Canada.
  3. Cellular Automata
cacodyl Tweet Definition of cacodyl Like Definition of cacodyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) The dimethylarsine radical (CH3)2As-
  2. (chemistry) tetramethyldiarsine formally derived from two of these radicals; an evil-smelling liquid that spontaneously combusts in air
cadmium Tweet Definition of cadmium Like Definition of cadmium on Facebook
noun
  1. a metallic chemical element (symbol Cd) with an atomic number of 48.
caesium Tweet Definition of caesium Like Definition of caesium on Facebook
noun
  1. a metallic chemical element (symbol Cs) with an atomic number of 55.
calciferous Tweet Definition of calciferous Like Definition of calciferous on Facebook
adjective
  1. of or pertaining to calcium, calcium carbonate or calcite
calcine Tweet Definition of calcine Like Definition of calcine on Facebook
verbto calcine
  1. (transitive) to heat something without melting in order to drive off water etc, and to decompose carbonates into oxides or to oxidize or reduce it; especially to heat limestone to form quicklime
  2. (intransitive) to undergo such heating
calciner Tweet Definition of calciner Like Definition of calciner on Facebook
noun
  1. A person who calcines
  2. A device or container in which calcination takes place
calcium carbide Tweet Definition of calcium carbide Like Definition of calcium carbide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) A black, solid, of formula CaC?2, manufactured from lime and carbon at high temperatures; reacts with water to form acetylene.
calcium carbonate Tweet Definition of calcium carbonate Like Definition of calcium carbonate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) A colourless or white inorganic compound, CaCO?3, occuring as chalk, limestone, marble etc; reacts with acids to liberate carbon dioxide.
calcium hydroxide Tweet Definition of calcium hydroxide Like Definition of calcium hydroxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) A soft, white powder, Ca(OH)2, obtained by the action of water on calcium oxide; slaked lime.
calcium oxide Tweet Definition of calcium oxide Like Definition of calcium oxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) A white powderous substance, CaO?, commonly known as lime or quicklime; normally made by heating calcium carbonate.
californium Tweet Definition of californium Like Definition of californium on Facebook
noun
  1. a transuranic chemical element (symbol Cf) with an atomic number of 98.
calx Tweet Definition of calx Like Definition of calx on Facebook
noun
  1. (archaic) The substance which remains after a metal or mineral has been thoroughly burnt, seen as being the essential substance left after the expulsion of phlogiston.
  2. (Now recognised as being) the oxide left after calcination of a metal.
  3. calcium oxide
caoutchouc Tweet Definition of caoutchouc Like Definition of caoutchouc on Facebook
noun
  1. latex; natural rubber
capric acid Tweet Definition of capric acid Like Definition of capric acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (fatty acid) A fatty acid, CH3(CH2)8COOH, obtained from animal fats, and used in the manufacture of perfumes and flavours.
caproic acid Tweet Definition of caproic acid Like Definition of caproic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (fatty acid) A liquid fatty acid, CH3(CH2)4COOH, obtained from animal fats, and used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and flavours.
caprolactam Tweet Definition of caprolactam Like Definition of caprolactam on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) A lactam (cyclic amide) manufactured from cyclohexanone and used in the manufacture of nylon.
caprylic acid Tweet Definition of caprylic acid Like Definition of caprylic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (fatty acid) A fatty acid, CH3(CH2)6COOH, obtained from butter and other animal fats, and used in the manufacture of perfumes and flavours.
carbamate Tweet Definition of carbamate Like Definition of carbamate on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any salt or ester of carbamic acid.
carbamic acid Tweet Definition of carbamic acid Like Definition of carbamic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) amino-formic acid, NH2COOH; is too unstable to have been isolated, but its esters and salts are known.
carbanion Tweet Definition of carbanion Like Definition of carbanion on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any organic anion of general formula R3C-
carbene Tweet Definition of carbene Like Definition of carbene on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any short-lived, reactive species R2C:, especially the parent compound CH2: (also called methylene).
carbide Tweet Definition of carbide Like Definition of carbide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) Any binary compound of carbon and a more electropositive element
  2. (chemistry) The polyatomic ion C22−, or any of its salts.
  3. (chemistry) The monatomic ion C4−, or any of its salts.
  4. (chemistry) A carbon-containing alloy or doping of a metal or semiconductor, such as steel.
  5. (chemistry) tungsten carbide, Tungsten carbide.
  6. (cycling) trivial name for calcium carbide (CaC?2), used to produce acetylene in bicycle lamps in the early 1900s.
carbinol Tweet Definition of carbinol Like Definition of carbinol on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, obsolete, organic compound, uncountable) The compound methanol.
  2. (context, obsolete, organic chemistry, countable) Any substituted methanol.
carbolic Tweet Definition of carbolic Like Definition of carbolic on Facebook
noun
  1. carbolic acid or similar disinfectant
adjective
  1. of, relating to or containing carbolic acid
carbolic acid Tweet Definition of carbolic acid Like Definition of carbolic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. an older name for phenol (C6H5OH)
carbon Tweet Definition of carbon Like Definition of carbon on Facebook
noun
  1. (uncountable) The chemical element (symbol C) with an atomic number of 6.
  2. (context, countable, informal) A sheet of carbon paper.
Make sure the is facing the second sheet of paper, before rolling it into the typewriter.
  1. (context, countable, informal) A carbon copy.
  2. A fossil fuel that is made of impure carbon such as coal or charcoal.
  3. (context, ecology, uncountable) carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide, in the context of global warming and climate change.
carbonaceous Tweet Definition of carbonaceous Like Definition of carbonaceous on Facebook
adjective
  1. of, relating to, rich in, or yielding carbon
carbonate Tweet Definition of carbonate Like Definition of carbonate on Facebook
noun
  1. any salt or ester of carbonic acid
verb (carbonat, ing)
  1. (transitive) to charge (often a beverage) with carbon dioxide
carbonation Tweet Definition of carbonation Like Definition of carbonation on Facebook
noun
  1. The state of having carbon dioxide gas dissolved in a liquid.
Soda pop is basically sugar water with a little bit of flavoring and added .
  1. The amount or level of dissolved carbon dioxide remaining in solution.
''Celia didn't eat at the diner anymore because she thought the in their fountain drinks was off.
  1. carbonization, Carbonization.
carbon bisulfide Tweet Definition of carbon bisulfide Like Definition of carbon bisulfide on Facebook
noun
  1. alternative spelling of carbon disulfide
carbon black Tweet Definition of carbon black Like Definition of carbon black on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A fine black powder of amorphous carbon manufactured by the incomplete combustion of natural gas or oil, and used as a pigment in the manufacture of ink and paint. Used as a filler in rubber like polymers and rubber. It helps the polymers resist deterioration by UV rays.
carbon dioxide Tweet Definition of carbon dioxide Like Definition of carbon dioxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic compound) The normal oxide of carbon, CO2; a colorless, odorless gas formed during respiration and combustion and consumed by plants during photosynthesis.
carbon disulfide Tweet Definition of carbon disulfide Like Definition of carbon disulfide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a binary compound of carbon and sulfur, CS2, a colourless liquid with a not-unpleasant smell; used as a specialist solvent, and in the manufacture of organosulfur compounds
carbonic Tweet Definition of carbonic Like Definition of carbonic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Of or relating to carbon.
carbonic acid Tweet Definition of carbonic acid Like Definition of carbonic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. a weak unstable acid, H2CO3, known only in solution, and as carbonate salts; it is present in carbonated drinks, and sparkling wine, but decomposes to form carbon dioxide and water
carbonium ion Tweet Definition of carbonium ion Like Definition of carbonium ion on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a carbenium ion or any carbocation
carbonization Tweet Definition of carbonization Like Definition of carbonization on Facebook
noun
  1. The act or process of carbonizing.
carbonize Tweet Definition of carbonize Like Definition of carbonize on Facebook
verb (carboniz, es)
  1. To turn something to carbon, especially by heating it; to scorch or blacken.
  2. To react something with carbon.
carbon monoxide Tweet Definition of carbon monoxide Like Definition of carbon monoxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemical compound) A colourless, odourless, flammable, highly toxic gas (chemical formula CO).
carbonous Tweet Definition of carbonous Like Definition of carbonous on Facebook
adjective
  1. of, relating to, or containing carbon
carbon oxychloride Tweet Definition of carbon oxychloride Like Definition of carbon oxychloride on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic compound) (alternative form of, carbonyl chloride)
carbonyl Tweet Definition of carbonyl Like Definition of carbonyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) In organic chemistry, a divalent functional group, (-CO-), characteristic of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amides, carboxylic acid anhydrides, carbonyl halides, esters and others.
  2. (inorganic chemistry) Any compound of a metal with carbon monoxide, such as nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)4.
carbonyl chloride Tweet Definition of carbonyl chloride Like Definition of carbonyl chloride on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic compound) A toxic gas, COCl2, used in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides etc, and once used as a chemical weapon.
    • 2006, Thomas Pynchon, Against the Day, Vintage 2007, p. 265:
    • :More of a French term. Phosgène. We prefer to call it . Less. . .disquieting, somehow.
carborane Tweet Definition of carborane Like Definition of carborane on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any of a class of organic compounds of boron, mostly havng a polyhedral structure.
carboxyl Tweet Definition of carboxyl Like Definition of carboxyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) A univalent functional group consisting of a carbonyl and a hydroxyl functional group (-CO.OH); characteristic of carboxylic acids.
carboxylic acid Tweet Definition of carboxylic acid Like Definition of carboxylic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any of a class of organic compounds containing a carboxyl functional group.
carboy Tweet Definition of carboy Like Definition of carboy on Facebook
noun
  1. A large, globular glass bottle, esp. one of green glass,encased in basket work or in a box, used to hold corrosive liquids.
carbylamine Tweet Definition of carbylamine Like Definition of carbylamine on Facebook
noun
  1. (obsolete),(chemistry) an isocyanide
carrier Tweet Definition of carrier Like Definition of carrier on Facebook
noun
  1. A person or object that carry, carries someone or something else.
aircraft carrier
armored personnel carrier
  1. A company in the business of shipping freight.
  2. A person or animal that transmits a disease to others without itself contracting the disease.
  3. A signal such as radio, sound, or light that is modulated to transmit information.
  4. A mobile network operator; wireless carrier
cascade Tweet Definition of cascade Like Definition of cascade on Facebook
noun
  1. A waterfall or series of small waterfalls
Now murm'ring soft, now roaring in . -Cawper
  1. (figuratively) A stream or sequence of a thing or things occurring as if falling like a cascade.
The rise in serotonin levels sets off a of chemical events — Richard M. Restak, The Secret Life of the Brain, Joseph Henry Press, 2001
  1. A series of electrical components, the output of any one being connected to the input of the next; See also daisy chain
verb (cascad, ing)
  1. (intransitive) To fall as a waterfall or series of small waterfalls.
  2. To occur as a causal sequence.
  3. (archaic) (slang) To vomit.
catalysis Tweet Definition of catalysis Like Definition of catalysis on Facebook
noun (catalyses)
  1. (chemistry) The increase of the rate of a chemical reaction induced by a catalyst.
catalyst Tweet Definition of catalyst Like Definition of catalyst on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A substance which increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process.
  2. (automotive) A catalytic converter.
  3. Someone or something that helps or encourages progress or change.
I hope the new CEO will be a for change.
Economic development and integration are working as a for peace.
catalyze Tweet Definition of catalyze Like Definition of catalyze on Facebook
verb (catalyzes, catalyzing, catalyzed, catalyzed)
  1. (transitive) To bring about the catalysis of a chemical reaction.
  2. (transitive) To accelerate a process.
  3. (transitive) To inspire significantly by catalysis.
catechol Tweet Definition of catechol Like Definition of catechol on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) The biologically important diphenol ortho-dihydroxy benzene; isomeric with hydroquinone and resorcinol.
cation Tweet Definition of cation Like Definition of cation on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A positively charged ion; -- opposed to anion.
  2. (chemistry) The ion in an electrolyzed solution that migrates to the cathode.
caustic soda Tweet Definition of caustic soda Like Definition of caustic soda on Facebook
noun
  1. Common name for sodium hydroxide (NaOH?), a strong alkaline substance used in the manufacture of paint and detergents, or as a drain cleaner.
CB Tweet Definition of CB Like Definition of CB on Facebook
initialism (wikipedia, citizens' band radio)
  1. citizens' band
  2. Chemical and Biological
CD Tweet Definition of CD Like Definition of CD on Facebook
initialism (pos_n)
  1. compact disk: A form of digital media that is based on the use of a laser to read from a plastic disc in a reader device known as a CD drive. It comes in several varieties including the CD-ROM (ROM=read-only memory) which cannot be written to except during manufacturing, the CD-R (recordable), which can be written to exactly once, and the CD-RW (re-writable), which can be written to as many times as one wishes (to a limit).
  2. Certificate of deposit: used by financial institutions
  3. Corps diplomatique: a decal found on automobiles to indicate diplomatic status
  4. Creative director: head of the creative department (e.g. advertising agencies)
  5. Corporate design: specific design features of a company, corporate identity CI
  6. Collision detection: used by an Ethernet network to detect when two computers are sending frames at the same time, and also to deal with such collisions when they happen
  7. circular dichroism
cellulose nitrate Tweet Definition of cellulose nitrate Like Definition of cellulose nitrate on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) The compound nitrocellulose.
ceric Tweet Definition of ceric Like Definition of ceric on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Containing cerium with valence four.
cerium Tweet Definition of cerium Like Definition of cerium on Facebook
noun
  1. A metallic chemical element (symbol Ce) with an atomic number of 58.
cerous Tweet Definition of cerous Like Definition of cerous on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Containing cerium with valence three.
cesium Tweet Definition of cesium Like Definition of cesium on Facebook
noun
  1. US spelling of caesium.
cf Tweet Definition of cf Like Definition of cf on Facebook
abbreviation or cf.
  1. confer: compare
  2. see also
initialismCF
  1. (computing) Collaborative Filtering
chain Tweet Definition of chain Like Definition of chain on Facebook
noun
  1. A series of interconnected rings or links usually made of metal.
He wore a gold around the neck.
  1. A series of interconnected things.
This led to an unfortunate of events.
  1. A series of stores or businesses with the same brand name.
That of restaurants is expanding into our town.
  1. A number of atoms in a series, which combine to form a molecule.
When examined, the molecular included oxygen and hydrogen.
  1. (surveying) A series of interconnected links of known length, used as a measuring device.
  2. (surveying) A long measuring tape.
  3. A unit of length equal to 22 yards. The length of a commonly used surveying chain. The length of a cricket pitch. Equal to 17.85 metres. Equal to 4 rods.
verb
  1. (transitive) To fasten something with a chain
  2. (intransitive) To link multiple items together
  3. (transitive) To secure someone with fetters
  4. (transitive) To obstruct the mouth of a river etc with a chain
  5. (computing) To relate data items with a chain of pointers; to be chained to another data item
  6. (transitive) To measure a distance using a 66-foot long chain, as in land surveying
chain reaction Tweet Definition of chain reaction Like Definition of chain reaction on Facebook
noun
  1. (physics) A nuclear reaction in which particles produced by the fission of one atom trigger fissions of other atoms.
The Manhattan Project produced the first recorded controlled chain reaction.
  1. (idiom) A series of events, each one causing the next.
''The bombs all exploded in a .
chalcogen Tweet Definition of chalcogen Like Definition of chalcogen on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic chemistry) Any element of group 16 of the periodic table - oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium and polonium.
chalcogenide Tweet Definition of chalcogenide Like Definition of chalcogenide on Facebook
noun
  1. (inorganic chemistry) Any binary compound of a chalcogen with a more electropositive element.
chalcophile Tweet Definition of chalcophile Like Definition of chalcophile on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry), (geology) in the Goldschmidt classification, an element such as copper that forms sulphide minerals if sufficient sulphur is available
char Tweet Definition of char Like Definition of char on Facebook
noun
  1. (obsolete) a time; a turn or occasion
  2. (obsolete) a turn of work; a labour or item of business
  3. an odd-job, a chore or piece of housework