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Glossary of Chemistry Terms
beginning with letter D
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D Tweet Definition of D Like Definition of D on Facebook
noun
  1. a grade awarded for a class, better than outright failure (which can be F or E depending on the institution) and worse than a C
proper noun
  1. (snooker) The semicircle on the baulk line, inside which the cue ball must be placed at a break-off
abbreviation
  1. Defense
  2. (US politics) Democrat
  3. Deny
  4. Divorced
  5. Down
  6. Drive
  7. Dutch language.
=      
deactivate Tweet Definition of deactivate Like Definition of deactivate on Facebook
verb (deactivat, es)
  1. (ergative) to make something inactive or no longer effective
  2. to prevent the action of a biochemical agent (such as an enzyme)
  3. to remove a person or piece of hardware from active military service
decane Tweet Definition of decane Like Definition of decane on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any of the seventy-five isomers of the aliphatic hydrocarbon having the chemical formula C10H22
decarbonate Tweet Definition of decarbonate Like Definition of decarbonate on Facebook
verbto decarbonate
  1. To remove carbon dioxide from something
decarbonize Tweet Definition of decarbonize Like Definition of decarbonize on Facebook
verb (decarboniz, ing)
  1. To remove carbon from something, especially from an engine; to decoke.
degrade Tweet Definition of degrade Like Definition of degrade on Facebook
verb (degrad, ed)
  1. (transitive) To lower in value or social position.
Fred degrades himself by his behaviour.
  1. (intransitive) To reduce in quality or purity.
The DNA sample has degraded.
dehydrate Tweet Definition of dehydrate Like Definition of dehydrate on Facebook
verb (dehydrat, ing)
  1. to lose or remove water; to dry
dehydrogenate Tweet Definition of dehydrogenate Like Definition of dehydrogenate on Facebook
verbto dehydrogenate
  1. (chemistry) to remove hydrogen from a substance
denature Tweet Definition of denature Like Definition of denature on Facebook
verb (denatures, denaturing, denatured, denatured)
  1. to take away a natural characteristic or inherent property of a thing or a person
  2. (in reference to alcohol) to add something that makes alcohol unsuitable for consumption but leaves the alcohol suitable for other purposes
    • While you cannot drink denatured alcohol, you can still use it to remove sticker glue from most surfaces.
densitometer Tweet Definition of densitometer Like Definition of densitometer on Facebook
noun
  1. A device that measures the optical density of a material.
  2. A device that measures the specific gravity of a substance; a densimeter.
depressant Tweet Definition of depressant Like Definition of depressant on Facebook
noun
  1. A pharmacological substance which decreases neuronal or physiological activity.
adjective
  1. Acting as a depressant.
category:Drugs      
depside Tweet Definition of depside Like Definition of depside on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any of a class of intermolecular esters formed from phenolic benzoic acids, especially such compounds found in lichen
derivative Tweet Definition of derivative Like Definition of derivative on Facebook
noun (plural:derivatives)
  1. Something derive, derived.
  2. A word that derives from another one.
  3. (finance) A financial instrument whose value depends on the valuation of an underlying asset; such as a warrant, an option etc.
  4. (chemistry) A chemical derived from another.
  5. (calculus) The derived function of a function.
    The derivative of <math>f(x) = x^2</math> is <math>f'(x) = 2x</math>
  6. (calculus) The value of this function for a given value of its independent variable.
    The derivative of <math>f(x) = x^2</math> at x = 3 is <math>f'(3) = 2
    • 3 = 6</math>.
adjective
  1. Imitative of the work of someone else
  2. (copyright law) Referring to a work, such as a translation or adaptation, based on another work that may be subject to copyright restrictions
  3. Having a value that depends on an underlying asset of variable value
  4. Lacking originality
derive Tweet Definition of derive Like Definition of derive on Facebook
verb (deriv, ing)
(
rfex)
  1. (context, transitive) To obtain or receive (something) from something else.
  2. (context, transitive, logic) To deduce (a conclusion) by reasoning.
  3. (context, transitive, linguistics) To find the derivation of (a word or phrase).
  4. (context, transitive, chemistry) To create (a compound) from another by means of a reaction.
  5. (context, intransitive) To originate or stem (from).
desalinate Tweet Definition of desalinate Like Definition of desalinate on Facebook
verbto desalinate
  1. To remove the salt from something, especially from seawater for use in a domestic water supply
desalt Tweet Definition of desalt Like Definition of desalt on Facebook
verb
  1. To remove salt from; to desalinate, as of sea water.
desensitize Tweet Definition of desensitize Like Definition of desensitize on Facebook
verb (desensitiz, ing)
  1. to cause to become less sensitive or insensitive
The exposure to light desensitized the film, so I had to buy a new roll.
Even those who believe themselves desensitized to the grotesque will be shocked at this site.
destructive distillation Tweet Definition of destructive distillation Like Definition of destructive distillation on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) The heating of a material, such as coal or wood, in an inert atmosphere, at a high temperature such as to cause decomposition; the principal products include oils and tars from which many useful organic compounds may be obtained; town gas and coke were obtained in this way.
desulfur Tweet Definition of desulfur Like Definition of desulfur on Facebook
verbto desulfur
  1. (transitive) to remove the sulfur from something (such as petroleum or flue gases)
desulfurize Tweet Definition of desulfurize Like Definition of desulfurize on Facebook
verb (desulfuriz, ing)
  1. (transitive) to remove the sulfur from something (such as petroleum or flue gases)
detergent Tweet Definition of detergent Like Definition of detergent on Facebook
noun
  1. any non-soap cleaning agent, especially a synthetic surfactant
  2. a compound with a lipophilic tail and a hydrophilic head.
adjective
  1. having the power to clean
deuteride Tweet Definition of deuteride Like Definition of deuteride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any hydride in which the hydrogen is replaced by deuterium
deuterium Tweet Definition of deuterium Like Definition of deuterium on Facebook
noun
  1. (isotope) An isotope of hydrogen formed of one proton and one neutron in each atom - (nuclide, 2, 1, H).
dialysis Tweet Definition of dialysis Like Definition of dialysis on Facebook
noun (dialyses)
  1. (chemistry) a method of separating molecules or particles of different sizes by differential diffusion through a semipermeable membrane
  2. (medicine) hemodialysis
diamine Tweet Definition of diamine Like Definition of diamine on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) Any compound containing two amino functional groups.
diatomic Tweet Definition of diatomic Like Definition of diatomic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) (of a molecule etc) consisting of two atoms
diazine Tweet Definition of diazine Like Definition of diazine on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) an aromatic compound in which two CH groups of a benzene ring have been replaced with N; especially the three isomers of formula C4H4N2
diazo Tweet Definition of diazo Like Definition of diazo on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) of an organic compound containing a pair of double bonded nitrogen atoms directly attached to an aryl group
diazoamino Tweet Definition of diazoamino Like Definition of diazoamino on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the functional group -N=N-N<
diazomethane Tweet Definition of diazomethane Like Definition of diazomethane on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the simplest diazo compound, CH2=N+=N-; a toxic, yellow, explosive gas; used in analytical chemistry to convert carboxylic acids into their methyl esters for analysis via gas-liquid chromatography
diazonium Tweet Definition of diazonium Like Definition of diazonium on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any univalent cation, of general formula R-N2+, where R is an aryl group; diazonium salts are used to manufacture azo dyes, and take part in the Sandmeyer reaction
diazonium compound Tweet Definition of diazonium compound Like Definition of diazonium compound on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any compound having the general formula R-N2+ X-, especially one in which R is an aryl residue; they are important as intermediates in the production of azo dyes
diazonium salt Tweet Definition of diazonium salt Like Definition of diazonium salt on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a diazonium compound
diazotization Tweet Definition of diazotization Like Definition of diazotization on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the conversion of an aromatic primary amine into a diazonium compound, especially by the use of nitrous acid
dibasic Tweet Definition of dibasic Like Definition of dibasic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) (of an acid) containing two replaceable hydrogen atoms
  2. (chemistry) (of a salt) having two atoms of a univalent metal
diborane Tweet Definition of diborane Like Definition of diborane on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) boron hydride, B2H6, a colourless explosive gas with a nasty smell; it has an unusual structure in which two of the hydrogen atoms form a bridge between the two boron atoms
dibromide Tweet Definition of dibromide Like Definition of dibromide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any bromide containing two bromine atoms in each molecule
dicarboxylic acid Tweet Definition of dicarboxylic acid Like Definition of dicarboxylic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any organic compound having two carboxylic acid functional groups.
dichloride Tweet Definition of dichloride Like Definition of dichloride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any chloride containing two chlorine atoms bound to a single element or radical
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Tweet Definition of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Like Definition of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A chlorinated hydrocarbon which is mainly used as an insecticide. Mostly abbreviated as DDT.
dichroism Tweet Definition of dichroism Like Definition of dichroism on Facebook
noun
  1. the property of some crystals of transmitting different colours of light in different directions
  1. (physics) the property of some anisotropic materials of having different absorption coefficients for light polarized in different directions; circular dichroism
dichromate Tweet Definition of dichromate Like Definition of dichromate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any salt of dichromic acid; in solution the orange dichromate anion (Cr2O72-) is in equilibrium with the yellow chromate anion (CrO?42-), the relative amount of each ion depending on the pH; they are both very powerful oxidizing agents
dichromic acid Tweet Definition of dichromic acid Like Definition of dichromic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A relatively unstable form of chromic acid, H2Cr2O7, known only in solution or as its salts, the dichromates, from which it may be prepared.
didymium Tweet Definition of didymium Like Definition of didymium on Facebook
noun
  1. (element) A mixture of praseodymium and neodymium once thought to be an element (symbol Di).
Diels-Alder reaction Tweet Definition of Diels-Alder reaction Like Definition of Diels-Alder reaction on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) The cycloaddition reaction between a conjugated diene and an alkene to form a cyclohexene ring.
diene Tweet Definition of diene Like Definition of diene on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) An organic compound, especially a hydrocarbon, containing two double bonds.
diester Tweet Definition of diester Like Definition of diester on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any organic compound containing two ester functional groups
digest Tweet Definition of digest Like Definition of digest on Facebook
noun
  1. That which is digested; especially, that which is worked over, classified, and arranged under proper heads or titles
  2. A compilation of statutes or decisions analytically arranged; a summary of laws.
Comyn's Digest
the United States Digest
  1. Any collection of articles, as an Internet mailing list "digest" including a week's postings, or a magazine arranging a collection of writings.
Reader's Digest is published monthly.
verb (rfc-level, Verb at L4+ not in L3 POS section)
  1. (transitive) To distribute or arrange methodically; to work over and classify; to reduce to portions for ready use or application.
to laws
  1. (transitive) To separate (the food) in its passage through the alimentary canal into the nutritive and nonnutritive elements; to prepare, by the action of the digestive juices, for conversion into blood; to convert into chyme.
  2. (transitive) To think over and arrange methodically in the mind; to reduce to a plan or method; to receive in the mind and consider carefully; to get an understanding of; to comprehend.
  3. (context, transitive, chemistry) To soften by heat and moisture; to expose to a gentle heat in a boiler or matrass, as a preparation for chemical operations.
  4. (intransitive) To undergo digestion; as, food digests well or ill.
diglyceride Tweet Definition of diglyceride Like Definition of diglyceride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a lipid, an ester of glycerol and two fatty acids (the same or different, in the 1,2 or 1,3 positions)
dihydric Tweet Definition of dihydric Like Definition of dihydric on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Containing two hydroxyl functional groups.
dihydroxy Tweet Definition of dihydroxy Like Definition of dihydroxy on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) containing two hydroxy functional groups
diketone Tweet Definition of diketone Like Definition of diketone on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any compound having two neighbouring ketonic carbonyl groups
DIL Tweet Definition of DIL Like Definition of DIL on Facebook
initialism
  1. dual in line
dilute Tweet Definition of dilute Like Definition of dilute on Facebook
verb (dilut, ing)
  1. (transitive) To add more of a solvent to a solution; especially to add more water.
  2. (transitive) To weaken.
adjective
  1. Having a low concentration.
Clean the panel with a , neutral cleaner.
  1. weak, Weak.
dimer Tweet Definition of dimer Like Definition of dimer on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A molecule consisting of two identical halves, formed by joining two identical molecules, sometimes with a single atom acting as a bridge.
dimethyl Tweet Definition of dimethyl Like Definition of dimethyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) (in combination) Two methyl groups in a molecule.
dimethylnitrosamine Tweet Definition of dimethylnitrosamine Like Definition of dimethylnitrosamine on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a simple nitrosamine, (CH3)2N-N=O, found in tobacco smoke; it is carcinogenic
dimethyl sulfoxide Tweet Definition of dimethyl sulfoxide Like Definition of dimethyl sulfoxide on Facebook
noun (abbreviationDMSO)
  1. (organic compound) An organic compound, (CH3)2SO, obtained as a byproduct from wood pulp, and is used as a solvent for carrying out chemical reactions and for administering drugs through the skin; also used as a reagent; its polar structure is a resonance hybrid.
+ -
>S=O <=> >S-O      
diol Tweet Definition of diol Like Definition of diol on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any organic compound having two hydroxy functional groups
dioxide Tweet Definition of dioxide Like Definition of dioxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) Any oxide containing two oxygen atoms in each molecule.
diphenyl Tweet Definition of diphenyl Like Definition of diphenyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) An alternative name of biphenyl.
diphenylamine Tweet Definition of diphenylamine Like Definition of diphenylamine on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) an aromatic amine, (C6H5)2NH, used in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, explosives, pesticides, fungicides and pharmaceuticals
diphosphate Tweet Definition of diphosphate Like Definition of diphosphate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any salt or ester containing two phosphate groups
  2. (chemistry) any salt or ester of diphosphoric acid; pyrophosphate
dipole Tweet Definition of dipole Like Definition of dipole on Facebook
noun
  1. (physics) any object (such as a magnet, polar molecule or antenna), that is oppositely charged at two points (or poles)
disaccharide Tweet Definition of disaccharide Like Definition of disaccharide on Facebook
noun
  1. (carbohydrates) Any sugar, such as sucrose, maltose and lactose, consisting of two monosaccharides combined together.
disperse Tweet Definition of disperse Like Definition of disperse on Facebook
verb (disperses, dispersing, dispersed)
  1. To scatter abroad so as to drive to different parts; to distribute; to diffuse; to spread; to scatter, so as to cause to vanish; to dissipate; as, to disperse vapors.
dispersion Tweet Definition of dispersion Like Definition of dispersion on Facebook
noun
  1. The state of being dispersed; dispersedness.
  2. A process of dispersing.
  3. The degree of scatter of data.
  4. The separation of visible light by refraction or diffraction.
disproportionation Tweet Definition of disproportionation Like Definition of disproportionation on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A form of redox reaction in which part of a reactant is oxidized and part of it is reduced simultaneously
dissolution Tweet Definition of dissolution Like Definition of dissolution on Facebook
noun
  1. The termination of an organized body or legislative assembly, especially a formal dismisal
  2. Disintegration, or decomposition into fragments
  3. Dissolving, or going into solution
dissolve Tweet Definition of dissolve Like Definition of dissolve on Facebook
noun
  1. cinematography a film punctuation in which there is a gradual transition from one scene to the next
verb (dissolv, ing)
  1. (chemistry): to disintegrate by immersing it into a liquid
  2. to disperse, to drive to parts (a group of persons)
  3. cinematography shift from one shot to another by having the former fade out as the latter fades in
distill Tweet Definition of distill Like Definition of distill on Facebook
verb
  1. (transitive) Subject a substance to distillation; .
  2. (intransitive) Undergo or be produced by distillation.
  3. (transitive) Make by means of distillation, esp. whisky.
  4. (transitive) Exude in small drops.
Firs distil resin.
  1. (transitive) Impart in small quantities.
  2. (transitive) Extract the essence of; concentrate; purify.
  3. (intransitive) Trickle down or fall in small drops; ooze out.
  4. (intransitive) Be manifested gently or gradually.
  5. (intransitive) Drip or be wet with.
distillate Tweet Definition of distillate Like Definition of distillate on Facebook
noun
  1. The liquid that has been condensed from vapour during distillation; normally a purified form or a fraction of an original liquid
  2. (context, by extension) An essence of something
distillation Tweet Definition of distillation Like Definition of distillation on Facebook
noun
  1. The act of falling in drops, or the act of pouring out in drops.
  2. That which falls in drops.
  3. The separation of the volatile parts of a substance from the more fixed; specifically, the operation of driving off gas or vapor from volatile liquids or solids, by heat in a retort or still, and the condensation of the prod