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Glossary of Chemistry Terms
beginning with letter M
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macromolecule Tweet Definition of macromolecule Like Definition of macromolecule on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry),(biochemistry) a very large molecule, especially used in reference to large biological polymers (e.g. nucleic acids and proteins).
Magenta Tweet Definition of Magenta Like Definition of Magenta on Facebook
proper noun
  1. a town in Northern Italy, site of the w:Battle of Magenta, Battle of Magenta after which the color magenta was named.
magnesium Tweet Definition of magnesium Like Definition of magnesium on Facebook
noun
  1. A light, flammable, silvery metal, and a chemical element (symbol Mg) with an atomic number of 12.
magnesium light Tweet Definition of magnesium light Like Definition of magnesium light on Facebook
noun
  1. a magnesium lamp
  2. the intense light from such a lamp
maleate Tweet Definition of maleate Like Definition of maleate on Facebook
noun
  1. any salt or ester of maleic acid
maleic acid Tweet Definition of maleic acid Like Definition of maleic acid on Facebook
noun (or cis-butenedioic acid)
  1. (chemistry) an unsaturated organic dicarboxylic acid, HOOCCH=CHCOOH, the geometric isomer of fumaric acid; it is found in unripe fruit, and is used industrially in the production of polyester resins
malic Tweet Definition of malic Like Definition of malic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Pertaining to apples.
(seeCites) category:Fruits      
maltha Tweet Definition of maltha Like Definition of maltha on Facebook
noun
  1. thick mineral pitch
maltol Tweet Definition of maltol Like Definition of maltol on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a substituted pyranone found in the bark and needles of some conifers and in roasted malt
maltose Tweet Definition of maltose Like Definition of maltose on Facebook
noun
  1. (carbohydrate) A disaccharide, C12H22O11 formed from the digestion of starch by amylase; is converted to glucose by maltase.
manganese Tweet Definition of manganese Like Definition of manganese on Facebook
noun
  1. a metallic chemical element (symbol Mn) with an atomic number of 25.
manganic Tweet Definition of manganic Like Definition of manganic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Containing manganese in its higher oxidation states.
manganite Tweet Definition of manganite Like Definition of manganite on Facebook
noun
  1. (geology) a dark gray mineral of manganese, MnO?(OH), found throughout North America and Europe
manganous Tweet Definition of manganous Like Definition of manganous on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Containing manganese in its +2 oxidation state.
mannitol Tweet Definition of mannitol Like Definition of mannitol on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a polyhydroxy alcohol, an isomer of sorbitol, used as an artificial sweetener
mantle Tweet Definition of mantle Like Definition of mantle on Facebook
noun
  1. a piece of clothing somewhat like an open robe or cloak, especially that worn by Orthodox bishops
  2. (figuratively) anything that covers or conceals something else
  3. the zone of hot gases around a flame; the gauzy incandescent covering of a gas lamp
  4. (anatomy) the cerebral cortex
  5. (geology) the layer between the Earth's core and crust
  6. (zoology) the body wall of a mollusc/mollusk
  7. An alternative spelling mantel
(wikipedia, mantle (geology))
(
wikipedia, mantle (mollusc))      
margaric acid Tweet Definition of margaric acid Like Definition of margaric acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A saturated fatty acid, CH3(CH2)15COOH (heptadecanoic acid), that (because it has an odd number of carbon atoms) does not occur in nature
massicot Tweet Definition of massicot Like Definition of massicot on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) lead monoxide, PbO?, obtained as a yellow amorphous powder, the fused and crystalline form of which is called litharge; lead ocher. It is used as a pigment; also, lead oxide yellow, as opposed to red lead, which is lead tetroxide Pb3O4.
    Note Massicot is sometimes used by painters, and also as a drier in the composition of ointments and plasters.
    Quotations
    • 1952: Besides orpiment, already referred to, one occasionally gets mention of , a yellow lead paint. — L.F. Salzman, Building in England, p. 169.
mechanochemistry Tweet Definition of mechanochemistry Like Definition of mechanochemistry on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) The reaction of substances, in the absence of a solvent, effected by grinding solid reactants
  2. (chemistry) The direct manipulation of individual molecules using an atomic force microscope
melamine Tweet Definition of melamine Like Definition of melamine on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a strong aromatic heterocyclic base, tri-amino-triazine, used, in combination with formaldehyde to manufacture melamine resins such as Formica™
mercaptan Tweet Definition of mercaptan Like Definition of mercaptan on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A class of organic compounds of sulphur, ( R1.S.R2 ); they tend to be foul-smelling. When R2 is a Hydrogen atom, they are termed thiols or thio-alcohols.
mercaptide Tweet Definition of mercaptide Like Definition of mercaptide on Facebook
noun
  1. (obsolete),(chemistry) thiolate
mercurial Tweet Definition of mercurial Like Definition of mercurial on Facebook
noun
  1. A chemical containing mercury.
adjective
  1. Relating to the Roman god Mercury.
  2. Relating to the planet Mercury.
  3. Having characteristics of the Roman god Mercury, such as speed.
  4. contain, Containing the element mercury.
  5. volatile, Volatile.
mercuric Tweet Definition of mercuric Like Definition of mercuric on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Pertaining to or derived from mercury.
  2. (chemistry) Of a compound, containing mercury with an oxidation number of 2.
mercurous Tweet Definition of mercurous Like Definition of mercurous on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Pertaining to or derived from mercury.
  2. (chemistry) Of a compound, containing mercury with an oxidation number of 1.
Mercury Tweet Definition of Mercury Like Definition of Mercury on Facebook
proper noun
  1. The Roman god associated with speed, sometimes used as a messenger. He wore winged sandals. Mercury corresponded to the Greek god Hermes.
  2. The planet in the solar system with the closest orbit to the Sun, named after the god; represented by ˜.
metallocene Tweet Definition of metallocene Like Definition of metallocene on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any of a class of organic compound containing two cyclopentadienyl anions and a transition metal whose bonding involves overlap of ns and np orbitals of the metal with molecular orbitals of appropriate symmetry of each cyclopentadienyl ring; the rings are either parallel to each other, or sometimes canted
metaphosphate Tweet Definition of metaphosphate Like Definition of metaphosphate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any salt or ester of metaphosphoric acid
metaphosphoric acid Tweet Definition of metaphosphoric acid Like Definition of metaphosphoric acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) an anhydrous form of phosphoric acid that exists as a polymeric glassy solid, (HPO3)n; used as a drying agent and in dental cement
metathesis Tweet Definition of metathesis Like Definition of metathesis on Facebook
noun (metatheses)
  1. the transposition of letters, syllables or sounds within a word, such as in ask as /ks/
  2. (chemistry) the double decomposition of inorganic salts
  3. (chemistry) the breaking and reforming of double bonds in olefins in which substituent groups are swapped
methacrylate Tweet Definition of methacrylate Like Definition of methacrylate on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any salt or ester of methacrylic acid, especially an ester used in the manufacture of resins and plastics.
  2. A resin manufactured from methacrylic acid or a methacrylate.
methacrylic acid Tweet Definition of methacrylic acid Like Definition of methacrylic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) A colourless liquid, an unsaturated organic acid, used in the manufacture of resins and plastics, it has the chemical formula CH2:C(CH3)COOH
methane Tweet Definition of methane Like Definition of methane on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, organic compound, uncountable) The simplest aliphatic hydrocarbon, CH4, being a constituent of natural gas.
  2. (context, organic chemistry, countable) Any of very many derivatives of methane.
methanol Tweet Definition of methanol Like Definition of methanol on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) The simplest aliphatic alcohol, CH3OH; a colourless, toxic, inflammable liquid, used as a solvent, antifreeze, in the chemical industry, and in the preparation of methylated spirit.
methenamine Tweet Definition of methenamine Like Definition of methenamine on Facebook
noun
  1. an alternative name of hexamine
methoxide Tweet Definition of methoxide Like Definition of methoxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the anion CH3O− derived from methanol by the loss of a proton
  2. (chemistry) any salt of this anion
methyl Tweet Definition of methyl Like Definition of methyl on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) The univalent hydrocarbon radical, CH3, formally derived from methane by the loss of a proton
methylamine Tweet Definition of methylamine Like Definition of methylamine on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic compound) The simplest aliphatic amine, CH3NH2, a toxic gas, having many industrial applications.
methylated spirits Tweet Definition of methylated spirits Like Definition of methylated spirits on Facebook
noun
  1. alternative name for methylated spirit
methylation Tweet Definition of methylation Like Definition of methylation on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the addition of a methyl group to a molecule
  2. (genetics) the addition of a methyl group to cytosine and adenine residues in DNA that leads to the epigenetic modification of DNA and the reduction of gene expression and protein production
methylene Tweet Definition of methylene Like Definition of methylene on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) The divalent radical CH2< in which the free valencies are part of single bonds.
  2. (organic chemistry) The same group, present as a repeating unit, in aliphatic compounds with names such as hexamethylenediamine.
  3. (organic chemistry) The unstable carbene CH2:
micelle Tweet Definition of micelle Like Definition of micelle on Facebook
noun
  1. a colloidal aggregate, in a simple geometric form, of a specific number of amphipathic molecules which forms at a well-defined concentration, called the critical micelle concentration
microgram Tweet Definition of microgram Like Definition of microgram on Facebook
noun
  1. A unit of mass equal to 0.000 001 grams and with symbol &micro;g/μg.
micron Tweet Definition of micron Like Definition of micron on Facebook
noun
  1. (physics) A measure of length; the thousandth part of one millimeter; the millionth part of a meter.
microprobe Tweet Definition of microprobe Like Definition of microprobe on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) an instrument used to determine the chemical composition at a point on a solid surface, such as that of a mineral; analyzes the X-rays emitted when a beam of electrons are focused on the sample
molal Tweet Definition of molal Like Definition of molal on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Of or designating a solution that contains one mole of solute per 1000g of solvent
molality Tweet Definition of molality Like Definition of molality on Facebook
noun (molalities)
  1. (chemistry) the concentration of a substance in solution, expressed as the number moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
molar Tweet Definition of molar Like Definition of molar on Facebook
noun
  1. a back tooth having a broad surface used for grinding one's food.
adjective
  1. of, or relating to the molar teeth, or to grinding
molarity Tweet Definition of molarity Like Definition of molarity on Facebook
noun (molarities)
  1. (chemistry) the concentration of a substance in solution, expressed as the number moles of solute per litre of solution
mole Tweet Definition of mole Like Definition of mole on Facebook
noun
  1. A pigmented spot on the skin, a naevus.
molecularity Tweet Definition of molecularity Like Definition of molecularity on Facebook
noun (molecularities, -)
  1. (uncountable) The state of being molecular
  2. (chemistry) (of a reaction) The number or molecules that react directly with one another
molecule Tweet Definition of molecule Like Definition of molecule on Facebook
noun
  1. in chemistry, the smallest particle of a specific element or compound that retains the chemical properties of that element or compound; a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds
  2. a tiny amount
molybdate Tweet Definition of molybdate Like Definition of molybdate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) the anion MoO?42&minus;
  2. (chemistry) any salt of molybdic acid
molybdenum Tweet Definition of molybdenum Like Definition of molybdenum on Facebook
noun
  1. a metallic chemical element (symbol Mo) with an atomic number of 42.
monad Tweet Definition of monad Like Definition of monad on Facebook
noun
  1. An ultimate atom, or simple, unextended point; something ultimate and indivisible.
monatomic Tweet Definition of monatomic Like Definition of monatomic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Of an element, consisting of a single atom in the molecule; for example: the noble gases. Note: strictly speaking, a molecule has at least two atoms.
monoatomic Tweet Definition of monoatomic Like Definition of monoatomic on Facebook
adjective
  1. alternative spelling of monatomic
monobasic Tweet Definition of monobasic Like Definition of monobasic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) (of an acid) containing one replaceable hydrogen atom
  2. (chemistry) (of a salt) having one atom of a univalent metal
monochloride Tweet Definition of monochloride Like Definition of monochloride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any chloride containing a single chlorine atom in each molecule
monocyclic Tweet Definition of monocyclic Like Definition of monocyclic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Having a single cycle of development or activity.
  2. (chemistry) Having a single ring of atoms in the molecule; such as benzene or cyclopropane.
monoglyceride Tweet Definition of monoglyceride Like Definition of monoglyceride on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a lipid, an ester of glycerol and one fatty acid (in the 1- or 2- positions)
monomer Tweet Definition of monomer Like Definition of monomer on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) A relatively small molecule which can be covalently bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.
monophosphate Tweet Definition of monophosphate Like Definition of monophosphate on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any compound containing a single phosphate unit
monoprotic Tweet Definition of monoprotic Like Definition of monoprotic on Facebook
adjective
  1. (chemistry) Having a single hydrogen atom; monobasic
monosaccharide Tweet Definition of monosaccharide Like Definition of monosaccharide on Facebook
noun
  1. (carbohydrate) A simple sugar such as glucose, fructose or deoxyribose that has a single ring.
monosodium Tweet Definition of monosodium Like Definition of monosodium on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) (in combination) one atom of sodium in a compound
monoxide Tweet Definition of monoxide Like Definition of monoxide on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) any oxide containing a single oxygen atom in each molecule
muriate Tweet Definition of muriate Like Definition of muriate on Facebook
adjective
  1. (context, obsolete, chemistry) chloride
muriatic acid Tweet Definition of muriatic acid Like Definition of muriatic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, obsolete, chemical compound) hydrochloric acid
muscarine Tweet Definition of muscarine Like Definition of muscarine on Facebook
noun
  1. (biochemistry) An extremely poisonous alkaloid obtained from certain mushrooms.
mustard gas Tweet Definition of mustard gas Like Definition of mustard gas on Facebook
noun
  1. a vesicant gas, bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide, (ClC?2H4)2S, once used in chemical warfare; one of the sulfur mustard class of compounds
MV Tweet Definition of MV Like Definition of MV on Facebook
abbreviation
  1. motor vessel
  2. motor vehicle
  3. merchant vessel
myristic acid Tweet Definition of myristic acid Like Definition of myristic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (chemistry) a saturated fatty acid, CH3(CH2)12COOH, tetradecanoic acid, found in both animal and vegetable oils and fats; used in the manufacture of soap, cosmetics etc.

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