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Glossary of Philosophy Terms
beginning with letter S
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schema Tweet Definition of schema Like Definition of schema on Facebook
noun (pl=schemata, pl2=schemas)
  1. an outline or image universally applicable to a general conception, under which it is likely to be presented to the mind.
  2. (computing) A formal description of the structure of a database: the names of the tables, the names of the columns of each table, and the type and other attributes of each column. (And similarly for the descriptive information of other database-like structures, such as XML files.)
secularism Tweet Definition of secularism Like Definition of secularism on Facebook
noun (uncountable)
  1. A position that religious belief should not influence public and governmental decisions
  2. The related political belief in the separation of church and state
skeptic Tweet Definition of skeptic Like Definition of skeptic on Facebook
noun
  1. Someone who habitually doubts accepted beliefs and claims presented by others, requiring strong evidence before accepting any belief or claim.
  2. Someone undecided as to what is true.
  3. A type of agnostic
skeptical Tweet Definition of skeptical Like Definition of skeptical on Facebook
adjective
  1. Behaving like a skeptic.
My teacher was skeptical when I told her my dog ate my homework.
skepticism Tweet Definition of skepticism Like Definition of skepticism on Facebook
noun (US)
  1. The practice or philosophy of being a skeptic.
  2. A study, studied attitude of questioning and doubt
  3. The doctrine that absolute knowledge is not possible
  4. A methodology that starts from doubt and aims to acquire certainty
  5. Doubt or disbelief of religious doctrines
Socratic Tweet Definition of Socratic Like Definition of Socratic on Facebook
proper noun
  1. a follower of Socrates.
adjective
  1. of or characteristic of the philosopher Socrates or his philosophical methods and/or views.
solipsism Tweet Definition of solipsism Like Definition of solipsism on Facebook
noun
  1. The theory that the self is the only thing that can be known and verified.
  2. The theory or view that the self is the only reality.
  3. By extension, extreme selfishness with indulgence of all of one's own desires, feelings, and instincts
sophism Tweet Definition of sophism Like Definition of sophism on Facebook
noun
  1. A flawed argument superficially correct in its reasoning, usually designed to deceive. An intentional fallacy.
sophist Tweet Definition of sophist Like Definition of sophist on Facebook
noun
  1. One of a class of men who taught eloquence, philosophy, and politics in ancient Greece; especially, one of those who, by their fallacious but plausible reasoning, puzzled inquirers after truth, weakened the faith of the people, and drew upon themselves general hatred and contempt.
  2. Hence, an impostor in argument; a captious or fallacious reasoner.
sophister Tweet Definition of sophister Like Definition of sophister on Facebook
noun
  1. a sophist
sophistry Tweet Definition of sophistry Like Definition of sophistry on Facebook
noun (sophistr, ies, -)
  1. (countable) An argument that seems plausible, but is fallacious or misleading, especially one devised deliberately to be so.
  2. (uncountable) The art of using deceptive speech or writing.
  3. (uncountable) cunning, Cunning or trickery.
sorites Tweet Definition of sorites Like Definition of sorites on Facebook
noun
  1. (logic) A series of propositions whereby each conclusion is taken as the subject of the next.
  • 1760: Why?"he would ask, making use of the or syllogism of Zeno and Chrysippus without knowing it belonged to them."Why? why are we a ruined people?"Because we are corrupted.""Whence is it, dear Sir, that we are corrupted?"Because we are needy ... ""And wherefore, he would add,"are we needy?""From the neglect, he would answer " Laurence Sterne, The Life & Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (Penguin 2003, p. 130)
spiritualism Tweet Definition of spiritualism Like Definition of spiritualism on Facebook
noun
  1. A philosophic doctrine, opposing materialism, that claims transcendency of the divine being, the altogether spiritual character of reality and the value of inwardness of consciousness.
  2. A belief that the dead communicate with the living through a medium having special powers.
stoic Tweet Definition of stoic Like Definition of stoic on Facebook
noun
  1. Proponent of a school of thought, from in 300 BCE up to about the time of w:Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius, who holds that by cultivating an understanding of the Logos, or natural law, that one can be free of suffering.
  2. a person indifferent to pleasure or pain
  3. a student of w:Stowe_School, Stowe School, England.
adjective
  1. of or related to the Stoics or their ideas; see Stoicism
  2. not affected by pain or distress
  3. not displaying any external signs of being affected by pain or distress
stoical Tweet Definition of stoical Like Definition of stoical on Facebook
adjective
  1. Enduring pain and hardship without showing feeling or complaint.
stoicism Tweet Definition of stoicism Like Definition of stoicism on Facebook
noun
  1. school of philosophy during the Roman Empire that emphasized reason as a means of understanding the natural state of things, or logos, and as a means of freeing oneself from emotional distress.
subaltern Tweet Definition of subaltern Like Definition of subaltern on Facebook
noun
  1. a subordinate
  2. (british) a commissioned officer having a rank just below that of Captain
  3. (logic) A subaltern proposition; a proposition implied by a universal proposition. For example, some crows are black is a subaltern of all crows are black.
adjective
  1. of a lower rank or position; inferior or secondary
subject Tweet Definition of subject Like Definition of subject on Facebook
noun
  1. (grammar) In a clause: the word or word group (usually a noun phrase) that is dealt with. In active clauses with verbs denoting an action, the and the actor are usually the same.
"In the sentence "The mouse is eaten by the cat in the kitchen.", "The mouse" is the , "the cat" being the agent."
  1. The main topic of a paper, work of art, discussion, etc.
  2. A particular area of study.
Her favorite is physics.
  1. A citizen in a monarchy.
I am a British .
  1. A person ruled over by another, especially a monarch or state authority
verb
  1. (followed by to) To cause (someone or something) to undergo a particular experience, especially one that is unpleasant or unwanted.
adjective
  1. Pertaining to a person or people who are ruled by another.
The Roman Empire ruled many territories.
subjective Tweet Definition of subjective Like Definition of subjective on Facebook
adjective
  1. Pertaining to subjects as opposed to objects (A subject is one who perceives or is aware; an object is the thing perceived or the thing that the subject is aware of.)
  2. Formed, as in opinions, based upon subjective feelings or intuition, not upon observation or reasoning, which can be influenced by preconception; coming more from within the observer rather than from observations of the external environment.
  3. Resulting from or pertaining to personal mindsets or experience, arising from perceptive mental conditions within the brain and not necessarily from external stimuli.
  4. Lacking in reality or substance.
  5. As used by w:Carl Jung, Carl Jung the innate worldview orientation of the introverted personality types.
  6. (philosophy) and (psychology) Experienced by a person mentally and not directly verifiable by others
subjectivism Tweet Definition of subjectivism Like Definition of subjectivism on Facebook
noun
  1. (philosophy) in metaphysics, the doctrine that reality is created or shaped by the mind
  2. (philosophy) in epistemology, the doctrine that knowledge is based in feelings or intuition
  3. (philosophy) in ethics, the doctrine that values and moral principles come from attitudes, convention, whim, or preference
subsistent Tweet Definition of subsistent Like Definition of subsistent on Facebook
adjective
  1. actually existing
  2. inherent
substantial Tweet Definition of substantial Like Definition of substantial on Facebook
adjective
  1. Belonging to substance; actually existing; real; as, substantial life.
  2. Not seeming or imaginary; not illusive; real; solid; true; veritable. "to do some good, is the compensation for much incidental imperfection" - Cardinal Newman, The Rise and Progress of Universities
  3. Corporeal; material; firm.
  4. Having good substance; strong; stout; solid; firm; as, substantial cloth; a substantial fence or wall.
  5. Possessed of goods or an estate; moderately wealthy; responsible; as, a substantial freeholder.
  6. Large in size or value; as, a substantial amount of money.
  7. Most important; essential.
substratum Tweet Definition of substratum Like Definition of substratum on Facebook
noun (pluralsubstrata)
  1. A layer that lies underneath another
  2. (figuratively) The underlying cause or basis of something
Superman Tweet Definition of Superman Like Definition of Superman on Facebook
proper noun
  1. Name of a comic book, comic-book character (first published in June 1938), with superhuman powers, including the ability to fly, super strength, and extreme speed.
superordinate Tweet Definition of superordinate Like Definition of superordinate on Facebook
noun (Plural:superordinates)
  1. That which is superordinate.
verb
  1. To cause to be superordinate.
adjective
  1. Greater in degree, rank or position
  2. (logic)The relation of a universal proposition to a specific proposition of the same form with the universal quantified variable replaced by a specific instance.
syllogism Tweet Definition of syllogism Like Definition of syllogism on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, logic) An inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows necessarily from two other propositions, known as the premises.
(seeCites)      
syllogistic Tweet Definition of syllogistic Like Definition of syllogistic on Facebook
adjective
  1. of or pertaining to a syllogism
symbol Tweet Definition of symbol Like Definition of symbol on Facebook
noun
  1. A character or glyph representing an idea, concept or object.
example
  • "$ is the for dollars in the US and some other countries"
  • "'
    1. ' is the hash "
      1. Any object, typically material, which is meant to represent another (usually abstract) even if there is no meaningful relationship.
      example
    2. "The dollar has no relationship to the concept of currency or any related idea."
      1. (linguistics) A type of noun whereby the form refers to the same entity independently of the context; a symbol arbitrarily denotes a referent. See also icon and index.
      2. A summary of a dogmatic statement of faith.
      example
    3. The Apostles, Nicene Creed and the confessional books of Protestantism, such as the Augsburg Confession of Lutheranism are considered symbols.
    symbolic Tweet Definition of symbolic Like Definition of symbolic on Facebook
    adjective
    1. Pertaining to a symbol.
    2. Referring to something with an implicit meaning.
    symposium Tweet Definition of symposium Like Definition of symposium on Facebook
    noun (pl=symposiums, pl2=symposia)
    1. A conference or other meeting for discussion of a topic, especially one in which the participants make presentations.
    2. (in ancient Greece) A drinking party, especially one with intellectual discussion.
    synthesis Tweet Definition of synthesis Like Definition of synthesis on Facebook
    noun (syntheses)
    1. the formation of something complex or coherent by combining simpler things
    2. (chemistry) the reaction of elements or compounds to form more complex compounds
    3. (logic) deduction from the general to the particular
    4. (philosophy) the combination of thesis and antithesis
    5. (Military) In intelligence usage, the examining and combining of processed information with other information and intelligence for final interpretation; (JP 1-02).

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