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Glossary of Philosophy Terms
beginning with letter P
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paralogism Tweet Definition of paralogism Like Definition of paralogism on Facebook
noun
  1. An unintentional fallacious argument or illogical conclusion
parousia Tweet Definition of parousia Like Definition of parousia on Facebook
noun
  1. the second coming of Christ
particular Tweet Definition of particular Like Definition of particular on Facebook
adjective
  1. specific; discrete; a part or portion of something.
  2. Concerned with, or attentive to, details; minute; precise; fastidious.
partition Tweet Definition of partition Like Definition of partition on Facebook
noun
  1. something that divides a thing into parts, or separates one thing from another, especially a vertical structure that divides a room
  2. a part of something that had been divided
  3. the division of a country into two or more autonomous countries
  4. (computing) a section of a hard disk separately formatted
  5. (set theory) a collection of non-empty, disjoint subsets of a set whose union is the set itself (i.e. all elements of the set are contained in exactly one of the subsets)
verbto partition
  1. To divide something into parts, sections or shares
  2. To divide a region or country into two or more territories with separate political status
  3. To separate or divide a room by a partition (ex. a wall), often use with off
perfectionist Tweet Definition of perfectionist Like Definition of perfectionist on Facebook
noun
  1. One who has a propensity for being displeased with anything that is not perfect or does not meet extremely high standards.
peripatetic Tweet Definition of peripatetic Like Definition of peripatetic on Facebook
noun
  1. One who walks about; a pedestrian; an itinerant.
  2. A disciple of Aristotle; an Aristotelian.
adjective
  1. Walking about; itinerant.
    1. (usually capitalized) Of or pertaining to the philosophy taught by Aristotle or to his followers.
person Tweet Definition of person Like Definition of person on Facebook
noun (plural:persons, people (by suppletion))
  1. Human being; individual.
  2. Specific human being.
Where is the ?
  1. The physical body of a specified individual.
Meanwhile, the dazed Sullivan, dressed like a bum with no identification on his , is arrested and put to work on a brutal Southern chain gang. " New York Times, 2004
  1. Any individual or formal organization with standing before the courts.
By common law a corporation or a trust is legally a .
  1. (grammar) A linguistic category used to distinguish between the speaker of an utterance and those to whom or about whom he is speaking. See grammatical person.
personalism Tweet Definition of personalism Like Definition of personalism on Facebook
noun
  1. (philosophy) A doctrine of subjective idealism that regards personality as the means of interpreting reality
perspectivism Tweet Definition of perspectivism Like Definition of perspectivism on Facebook
noun
  1. The philosophical view that all perception always takes place from a specific perspective.
phenomenology Tweet Definition of phenomenology Like Definition of phenomenology on Facebook
noun (phenomenolog, ies)
  1. (philosophy) A philosophy based on the intuitive experience of phenomena, and on the premise that reality consists of objects and events as consciously perceived by conscious beings
  2. (philosophy) A movement based on this, originated about 1905 by Edmund Husserl.
philosophaster Tweet Definition of philosophaster Like Definition of philosophaster on Facebook
noun
  1. a pretender to philosophy; a petty or charlatan philosopher.
philosophe Tweet Definition of philosophe Like Definition of philosophe on Facebook
noun
  1. any of the leading philosophers or intellectuals of the 18th century French Enlightenment.
  2. (pejorative) an incompetent philosopher; a philosophaster.
philosopher Tweet Definition of philosopher Like Definition of philosopher on Facebook
noun
  1. A person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy.
philosophical Tweet Definition of philosophical Like Definition of philosophical on Facebook
adjective
  1. of or pertaining to philosophy.
  2. a certain critical, creative way of thinking.
''Many novels have very advanced philosophical ideas within them.
philosophize Tweet Definition of philosophize Like Definition of philosophize on Facebook
verb (philosophizes, philosophizing, philosophized, philosophized)
  1. To philosophically ponder or reason out.
philosophy Tweet Definition of philosophy Like Definition of philosophy on Facebook
noun (philosophies, -)
  1. An academic discipline that is often divided into five major branches: logic; metaphysics; epistemology; ethics; and aesthetics.
  2. A comprehensive system of belief.
  3. A view or outlook regarding fundamental principles underlying some domain.
a of government
a of education
  1. A general principle (usually moral).
Platonic Tweet Definition of Platonic Like Definition of Platonic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Of or relating to the ancient Greek philosopher Plato or his philosophies.
platonic love Tweet Definition of platonic love Like Definition of platonic love on Facebook
noun
  1. intimate, Intimate but non-sexual affection.
Platonism Tweet Definition of Platonism Like Definition of Platonism on Facebook
noun
  1. The philosophy of Plato.
pragmatic Tweet Definition of pragmatic Like Definition of pragmatic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Practical, concerned with making decisions and actions that are useful in practice, not just theory
The sturdy furniture in the student lounge was , but unattractive.
pragmatics Tweet Definition of pragmatics Like Definition of pragmatics on Facebook
noun
  1. (linguistics) the study of the use of language in a social context
pragmatism Tweet Definition of pragmatism Like Definition of pragmatism on Facebook
noun
  1. The compromising of one's ideals to better deal with the specifics of a situation.
  2. The pursuit of practicality over aesthetic qualities; utilitarianism.
  3. (philosophy) A philosophic school linking the meaning of beliefs to the actions of a believer, and the truth of beliefs to success of those actions in securing a believer's goals.
pragmatist Tweet Definition of pragmatist Like Definition of pragmatist on Facebook
noun (pl.pragmatists)
  1. one who acts in a practical or straightforward manner; one who is pragmatic; one who values practicality or pragmatism
A pragmatist would never plant such a messy tree, but I like its flowers.
  1. one who acts in response to particular situations rather than upon abstract ideals; one who is willing to ignore their ideals to accomplish goals.
I'm not a thief, I am a pragmatist. I need this bread to feed my family.
We cannot trust him not to lie for his own gain, he's an opportunist and a pragmatist.
  1. one who belongs to the philosophic school of pragmatism; one who holds that the meaning of beliefs are the actions they entail, and that the truth of those beliefs consist in the actions they entail successfully leading a believer to their goals.
predicate Tweet Definition of predicate Like Definition of predicate on Facebook
noun
  1. (grammar) The part of the sentence (or clause) which states something about the subject.
In "The dog barked very loudly", the subject is "the dog" and the is "barked very loudly".
  1. (logic) A statement that may be true or false depending on the values of its variables.
  2. (computing) An operator or function that returns either true or false.
verb (predicat, ing)
  1. (transitive) To announce or assert publically.
  2. (context, transitive, logic) To state, assert.
  3. (transitive) To suppose, assume; to infer.
    • 1859: There was a character about Madame Defarge, from which one might have predicated that she did not often make mistakes against herself in any of the reckonings over which she presided. " Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities
    • 1881: Of anyone else it would have been said that she must be finding the afternoon rather dreary in the quaint halls not of her forefathers: but of Miss Power it was unsafe to so surely. " Thomas Hardy, A Laodicean
      1. (context, transitive, originally, US) To base (on); to assert on the grounds of.
    • 1978: the law is what constitutes both desire and the lack on which it is predicated. " Michel Foucault, The Will to Knowledge, trans. Robert Hurley (Penguin 1998, p. 81)
predicate calculus Tweet Definition of predicate calculus Like Definition of predicate calculus on Facebook
noun (uncountable)
  1. (logic) The branch of logic that deals with quantified statements such as "there exists an x such that..." or "for any x, it is the case that...", where x is a member of the domain of discourse.
premise Tweet Definition of premise Like Definition of premise on Facebook
noun
  1. A proposition antecedently supposed or proved; something previously stated or assumed as the basis of further argument; a condition; a supposition.
  2. (logic) Either of the first two propositions of a syllogism, from which the conclusion is deduced.
  3. Matters previously stated or set forth; esp., that part in the beginning of a deed, the office of which is to express the grantor and grantee, and the land or thing granted or conveyed, and all that precedes the habendum; the thing demised or granted.
  4. A piece of real estate; a building and its adjuncts (in this sense, used most often in the plural form).
trespass on another"s premises
prime mover Tweet Definition of prime mover Like Definition of prime mover on Facebook
noun
  1. (philosophy) The initial agent that is the cause of all things.
  2. The component of a power plant that transforms energy from thermal or pressure form to mechanical form; typically an engine or turbine.
  3. (automotive) The front part of a semi-trailer type truck, i.e., the tractor to which the trailer part attaches.
  4. A military or heavy construction vehicle.
prolepsis Tweet Definition of prolepsis Like Definition of prolepsis on Facebook
noun
  1. the assignment of something to a period of time that preceeds it.
  2. the representation of something which has ocurred before its time.
I'm a dead man.
  1. A grammar, grammatical construction that consists of placing an element in a syntactic unit before that to which it would logically correspond.
    That noise, I just heard it again.
    1. A Philosophy, philosophical concept used in ancient epistemology to indicate a so-called "preconception", i.e. a pre-theoretical notion which can lead to true knowledge of the world.
proposition Tweet Definition of proposition Like Definition of proposition on Facebook
noun (wikipedia, proposition, proposition (logic))
  1. (uncountable) The act of offering (an idea) for consideration.
  2. (countable) An idea or a plan offered.
  3. (countable) (in business settings) The terms of a transaction offered.
  4. (countable) (logic) The content of an assertion that may be taken as being true or false and is considered abstractly without reference to the linguistic sentence that constitutes the assertion.
  5. In some states of the US, a proposed statute or constitutional amendment to be voted on by the electorate.
  6. In mathematics, a proposition is an assertion formulated in such a way that it may be proved true or false.
propositional function Tweet Definition of propositional function Like Definition of propositional function on Facebook
noun
  1. (logic) An expression containing algebraic symbols that serve to represent words or other elements of a sentence or proposition
protasis Tweet Definition of protasis Like Definition of protasis on Facebook
noun (protas, es)
  1. the first part of a play, in which the setting and characters are introduced
  • 1922: It doubles itself in the middle of his life, reflects itself in another, repeats itself, , epitasis, catastasis, catastrophe. " James Joyce, Ulysses
    1. the antecedent in a conditional sentence
example: In, "I will be coming if this weather holds up", "this weather holds up" is the
protocol Tweet Definition of protocol Like Definition of protocol on Facebook
noun
  1. A rule which guides how an activity should be performed.
  2. The original copy of any writing, as of a deed, treaty, dispatch, or other instrument.
  3. The minutes, or rough draft, of an instrument or transaction.
  4. (context, diplomacy) A preliminary document upon the basis of which negotiations are carried on.
  5. (context, diplomacy) A convention not formally ratified.
  6. (context, diplomacy) An agreement of diplomatists indicating the results reached by them at a particular stage of a negotiation.
  7. (computing) A set of formal rules describing how to transmit data, especially across a network. A message syntax or electrical specification and a description 2 or more communication nodes: finite state machine, state machines, the transition function, transition functions of which take messages or times as input and, when then so triggered, may themselves send messages.
verb
  1. (obsolete), (transitive): To make a protocol of.
  2. (obsolete), (intransitive): To make or write protocols, or first drafts; to issue protocols.
(Webster)      
Psyche Tweet Definition of Psyche Like Definition of Psyche on Facebook
noun
  1. In psychology and related fields, the psyche is the entirety of the non-physical aspects of a person
  2. Psychidae, or Bagworms, a family of Lepidoptera
proper noun
  1. 16 Psyche, an asteroid
  2. A Gothic band
  3. An album by British band Ant and Dec
  4. A code name for Red Hat Linux 8.0
  5. (Greek and Roman mythology) name of a girl loved by Cupid (or Eros)
  6. In late Greek art and literature, a goddess who is the personification of the soul; she is primarily known for her role in the story of Cupid and Psyche, best attested in Apuleius' novel The Golden Ass
psychologist Tweet Definition of psychologist Like Definition of psychologist on Facebook
noun
  1. An expert in the field of psychology.
Pythagoreanism Tweet Definition of Pythagoreanism Like Definition of Pythagoreanism on Facebook
noun
  1. (philosophy) the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers

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