# All Words Glossary

Glossary of Math Terms
beginning with letter S
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 sample space
noun
1. (mathematics) The set of all possible outcomes of a game, experiment or other situation

 scalar
noun
1. (mathematics) A quantity that has magnitude but not direction; compare vector
2. (electronics) An amplifier whose output is a constant multiple of its input
1. (mathematics) Having magnitude but not direction
2. Of, or relating to scale

 scalar product
noun
1. (vector) The product of two vectors computed as the sum of the corresponding elements of the vectors, or, equivalently, as the product of the magnitudes of the vectors and the cosine of the angle between their directions.

 scientific notation
noun
1. (mathematics) a method of writing, or of displaying real numbers as a decimal number between 1 and 10 followed by an integer power of 10
2. (mathematics) an alternative format of such a decimal number immediately followed by E and an integer
The number 0.00236 is written in as 2.36x10-3 or as 2.36E-3.

 score
noun
1. The total number of points earned by a participant in a game.
The is 4-0 although it's not even half-time!
1. (archaic) Twenty, 20 (number).
Some words have scores of meanings.
• 1863 November 19, Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address, based on the signed "Bliss Copy"
• : "Four and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
1. (music) A book or set of pages showing all the parts for a musical composition.
2. (cricket) A presentation of how many runs a side has scored, and how many wickets have been lost.
England had a of 107 for 5 at lunch.
1. (cricket) The number of runs scored by a batsman, or by a side, in either an innings or a match.
2. subject
• 2005, w:Plato, Plato, Sophist. Translation by Lesley Brown. w:Stephanus pagination, 245e.
• : Well, although we haven't discusse the views of all those who make precise reckonings of being and not <being>, we've done enough on that .
verb (scor, ing)
1. (intransitive) To earn points in a game.
Pelé scores again!
1. (transitive) To earn points in a game.
It is unusual for a team to a hundred goals in one game.
1. (transitive) To scratch (paper or cardboard) with a sharp implement to make it easier to fold.
2. (transitive) (slang) To obtain (usually used in reference to illegal drugs, but often sex with a casual partner).
<!-- This includes in the previous one, doesn't it?
1. (intransitive) (slang) To have sexual intercourse. -->

 SEC
initialism
1. Securities and Exchange Commission

 secant
noun (plural secants)
1. (geometry) A straight line that intersects a curve at two or more points.
2. (trigonometry) In a right triangle, the reciprocal of the cosine of an angle. Symbol: sec

 second of arc
noun (seconds of arc)
1. An angle, one sixtieth (1/60th) of a minute of arc or one 3600th of a degree.

 sector
noun
1. section
2. zone
3. a part of a circle, extending to the center
4. (computing) a fixed-sized unit (traditionally 512 bytes) of sequential data stored on a track of a digital medium (compare to block)
5. (Military) An area designated by boundaries within which a unit operates, and for which it is responsible.
6. (Military) One of the subdivisions of a coastal frontier.
7. (scifi) a fictional region of space designated for navigational or governance purposes; for instance, W:Sector (Star Trek), W:List of Star Wars sectors

 semidiameter
noun
1. (astronomy) The apparent radius of a star etc, when viewed from Earth

 sense
noun
1. One of the methods for a living being to gather data about the world; sight, smell, hearing, touch, taste.
2. A general conscious awareness.
a sense of security
1. Sound practical judgment, as in common sense
2. The meaning, reason, or value of something.
You don"t make any sense.
1. A natural appreciation or ability
A keen musical sense
1. (Pragmatics) The way that a referent is presented.
2. (Semantics) A single conventional use of a word. I.e., one of the entries for a word in a dictionary.
verb (senses, sensing, sensed)
1. To use biological senses: to either smell, watch, taste, hear or feel.
2. To instinctively be aware.
She immediately sensed her disdain.
1. To comprehend.

 separate
noun
1. (usually, in plural) Anything that is sold by itself, especially an article of clothing.
verb (separat, ing)
1. (transitive) To divide (a thing) into separate parts.
Separate the articles from the headings.
1. (transitive) To cause (things or people) to be separate.
If the kids get too noisy, them for a few minutes.
1. (intransitive) To divide itself into separate pieces or substances.
The sauce will if you don't keep stirring.
1. apart, Apart from (the rest); not connected to or attached to (anything else).
This chair can be disassembled into five pieces.
1. (context, followed by "from") Not together (with); not united (to).
I try to keep my personal life from work.

 sequence
noun
1. A set of things next to each other in a set order; a series
2. A series of musical phrases where a theme or melody is repeated, with some change each time, such as in pitch or length (example: opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony).
3. A musical composition used in some Catholic Masses between the readings. The most famous sequence is the Dies Irae (Day of Wrath) formerly used in funeral services.
4. (mathematics) An ordered list of objects.
verb (sequences, sequencing, sequenced)
1. (transitive) to arrange in an order
2. (transitive) to determine the order of things, especially of amino acids in a protein, or of bases in a nucleic acid

 Set
proper noun (also Seth)
1. An ancient Egyptian god, variously described as the god of chaos, the god of thunder and storms, or the god of destruction.

 set theory
noun (uncountable)
1. (mathematics) The mathematical theory of sets.

 sexagesimal
noun
1. a sexagesimal fraction
1. (mathematics) of, pertaining by, proceeding by, or based on the number sixty

 similar
1. Having traits or characteristics in common; alike, comparable.
2. (mathematics) of triangles, etc., having corresponding angles equal and corresponding line segments proportional (the same shape, but possibly different size).

 simple
noun
1. (context, jargon, medicine) A preparation made from one plant, as opposed to something made from more than one plant.
1. having few parts or features; having no special features
2. (colloquial) feeble-minded.

 sine
noun (wikipedia, Trigonometric function, Sine)
1. (context, trigonometry, mathematics) In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the side opposite an angle to the length of the hypotenuse.

 singleton
noun
1. (context, playing cards) A playing card that is the only one of its suit in a hand, especially at bridge.
2. A single object, especially one of a group.
3. (context, computer science) A design pattern to force a class to have no more than one instance at any given time.
4. (context, computer science) A class that may not be instantiated more than once at a time, i.e. that implements the singleton design pattern.
5. (context, math) A set with just one element.

 single-valued
1. (mathematics) Of a function, associating a unique value of its range with each value of its domain.

 singularity
noun (singularities)
1. the state of being singular, distinct, peculiar, uncommon or unusual
2. a point where all parallel lines meet
3. a point where a measured variable reaches unmeasurable or infinite value
4. (mathematics) the value or range of values of a function for which a derivative does not exist
5. (physics) a point or region in spacetime in which gravitational forces cause matter to have an infinite density; associated with black holes

 sinusoidal
1. In the form of a wave, especially one whose amplitude varies in proportion to the sine of some variable (such as time).

 skew
verb
1. (transitive) To change or alter in a particular direction.
A disproportionate number of female subjects in the study group skewed the results.
1. (mathematics) Neither perpendicular nor parallel (usually said of two lines).

 slide rule
noun
1. an analog calculator consisting of three interlocking strips marked with logarithmic scales, such that multiplication, division etc. can be performed by the equilavent of addition and subtraction

 small circle
noun
1. a circle formed by a plane that cuts a sphere not through its centre

 smooth
1. Having a texture that lacks friction. Not rough.
• 2005, w:Plato, Plato, Sophist. Translation by Lesley Brown. w:Stephanus pagination, 229e.
• : Teaching that's done by talking seems to have one rough path and another part which is smoother.
1. Without difficulty, problems, or unexpected consequences or incidents.
We hope for a transition to the new system.

 solid
noun
1. (chemistry) A fundamental state of matter that retains its size and shape without need of a container. Solids that are sufficiently heated may sublimate into a gas or melt into a liquid.
2. (geometry) A three-dimensional object.
1. In the state of being a solid.
2. Large, massive.
3. Extremely filling (a solid meal.)
4. Lacking holes or hollows (solid gold, solid chocolate.)
5. Strong, unyielding (solid foundations.)
6. Lacking errors or inconsistencies that would render a theory or concept doubtful.

 solid angle
noun
1. (mathematics) The three-dimensional analog of an angle.

 solid of revolution
noun
1. A solid produced by taking a particular two-dimensional curve and rotating it through 360Â° about an axis. The curve will sweep out a surface, and the region inside the surface defines a solid.
• "A cylinder is a generated by rotating a rectangle about one of its axes."

 solve
verb (solv, es)
1. To find an answer or solution to a problem or question.

 space
noun
1. The intervening contents of a volume.
2. (uncountable) Space occupied by or intended for a person or thing.
There's not enough space for this couch in this room.
1. (countable) An area or volume of sufficient size to accommodate a person or thing.
They reserved a space for him to park his car.
Write your name in the space below.
1. The area beyond the atmosphere of planets that consists of a vacuum.
2. A gap between written characters; blank.
3. (typography) A piece of type used to separate words.
4. (geometry) A set of points, each of which is uniquely specified by a set of coordinates; the number of coordinates specifying a point and the number of mutually perpendicular axis, axes along which the coordinates lie are the same, and that is the number of dimensions of the space.
We live in a space that has at least four dimensions: up-down, left-right, forward-backward, and future-past.
1. One's personal freedom to think or be oneself.
I just need some , man.
1. The state of mind one is in when daydreaming.
2. (mathematics) a generalized construct or set, the members of which have certain properties in common; often used in combination with the name of a particular mathematician
3. (context, Indian philosophy) One of the five basic elements.
verb (spac, ing)
1. (transitive) To be separated to a distance.
:The cities are evenly spaced.
1. (intransitive) To vent into vacuum.
:The captain spaced the traitors.

 spherical
1. (geometry) shaped like a sphere.
2. (geometry) (no comparative or superlative) of or relating to a sphere or spheres.

 spherical geometry
noun (uncountable)
1. (geometry) The non-Euclidean geometry on the surface of a sphere.

 spheroid
noun
1. A solid of revolution generated by rotating an ellipse about its major (prolate), or minor (oblate) axis.
• "UFOs are reported as being either oblate (saucer shaped) or prolate (cigar shaped) spheroids"

 spherometer
noun
1. A device used to measure the curvature of a surface, such as a lens

 spiral
noun
1. (geometry) A curve that is the locus of a point that rotates about a fixed point while continuously increasing its distance from that point.
2. (informally) A helix.

 spline
noun (plural splines)
1. A rectangular piece that fits grooves like key seats in a hub and a shaft, so that while the one may slide endwise on the other, both must revolve together.
2. A flexible strip of metal or other material, that may be bent into a curve and used in a similar manner to a ruler to draw smooth curves between points.
3. (context, mathematics, computing) Any of a number of smooth curves used to join points.

 sq.
abbreviation
1. square

 square
noun
1. (geometry) A polygon with four sides of equal length and four angles of 90 degrees; a regular quadrilateral whose angles are all 90 degrees.
I took refuge in the form and exhibited a picture which consisted of nothing more than a black square on a white field.&mdash;q:Kazimir Malevich, Kazimir Malevich
1. An L- or T-shaped tool used to place objects or draw lines at right angles.
There are so many uses for the , in fact, that a new model will usually come complete with a booklet enumerating its applications.
1. An open space in a town, not necessarily square in shape, often containing trees, seating and other features pleasing to the eye.
You're not in Wisconsin, Dave. The big story isn't about a cow wandering into the town . q:NewsRadio, NewsRadio?
1. Anything, such as tiles or cut pieces of material, primarily defined by being square in shape.
You may not move a piece to a already occupied by one of your own pieces.
1. (mathematics) The second power of a number, value, term or expression.
64 is the of 8.
1. (slang) A socially conventional person; typically associated with the 1950s
Why do you always wear a tie? Don't be such a !
1. The symbol
1. on a telephone; hash.
Enter your account number followed by a .
1. (cricket) The central area of a cricket field, containing several pitches laid out next to one another - only one being used at a time.
An ideal playing area is roughly circular in shape with a central area, the cricket , measuring 27.44 metres by 27.44 metres and boundaries 45.75 metres from the sides of the square.
1. (context, real estate jargon) A unit of measurement of area, equal to a 10 foot by 10 foot square, ie. 100 square feet or roughly 9.3 square metres. Used in real estate for the size of a house or its rooms, though progressively being replaced by square metres in metric countries such as Australia.
2006: Just as the basic unit of real estate measurement across the world is the ... &mdash; w:Macquarie Bank, Macquarie Bank (Australia), press release Macquarie releases Real Estate Market Outlook 2006 - "The World Squared", 21 June 2006 http://www.macquarie.com.au/au/about_macquarie/media_centre/20060621.htm
2007: The house is very large and open and boasts 39 squares of living space plus over 13 squares of decking area on 3 sides and 17 squares of garage and workshop downstairs. &mdash; Your Estate advertisement for Grindelwald Tasmania http://www.yourestate.com.au/property_12753.php
verb (squar, ing)
1. (transitive) To adjust so as to align with or place at a right angle to something else.
2. To resolve.
• John can this question up for us.
• These results just don't .
1. (context, transitive, mathematics) Of a value, term or expression, to multiply by itself; to raise to the second power.
1. Shaped like a square (the polygon).
2. At right angles to.
3. Used in the names of units of area formed by multiplying a unit of length by itself.
square metre
square mile
1. (slang) Socially conventional; boring.
2. (cricket) in line with the batsman's popping crease.

 square matrix
noun (plural square matrices)
1. (mathematics) A matrix having the same number of rows as columns.

 square root
noun
1. (mathematics) Of a number, a number which, when squared, yields the given number; sometimes constrained to be the positive number where two solutions exist.
Every complex number has two square roots; for example, the square roots of -4 are 2i and -2i.

 squaring the circle
noun square, squaring the circle
1. (mathematics) The historical problem of how to construct, using compass and ruler, a square having the same area as a given circle.
2. (idiom) A hopeless or impossible task.

noun
1. (geometry) In the International System of Units, the derived unit of solid angle; the solid angle subtended at the centre of a sphere of radius r by a portion of the surface of the sphere that has area r2. Symbol: sr

 stereography
noun
1. Any technique for representing solid objects in two dimensions
2. stereoscopic photography, and the production of stereographs

 stereology
noun
1. Any technique used to obtain three-dimensional information from two-dimensional images

 stochastic matrix
noun (plural stochastic matrices)
1. (context, linear algebra, probability theory, statistics) A matrix having the property that the entry, entries in each column are non-negative, real and sum to 1.

 strictly decreasing function
noun
1. (mathematics) Any function of a real variable who value decreases as the variable increases

 strictly increasing function
noun
1. (mathematics) Any function of a real variable who value increases as the variable increases

 subcover
noun
1. (topology) A cover which is a subset of another cover.
The open intervals cover the real numbers; the open intervals of the form (x, x+1) are a subcover.

 subgroup
noun
1. A group within a larger group; a group whose members are some, but not all, of the members of a larger group.
2. (grouptheory) A subset H of a group G that is itself a group and has the same binary operation as G.

 subset
noun (plural subsets)
1. (settheory) Of a given set, a set all the elements of which are in the given set.
The set of integers is a subset of the set of reals.
1. A group of things or people, all of which are in a specified larger group.
We asked a subset of the population of the town for their opinion.

 subtract
verb
1. (transitive) To remove or reduce; especially to reduce a quantity or number
If you the \$100 for gas and bridge toll, it was a fairly inexpensive trip.

 subtraction
noun
1. (arithmetic) (uncountable) The process of subtracting a number from another.
2. (arithmetic) (countable) A calculation involving subtraction.
The teacher has set us ten subtractions to do by tomorrow.

 subtrahend
noun (plural subtrahends)
1. (arithmetic) A number or quantity to be subtracted from another.
In the subtraction 10 &minus; 4, 4 is the subtrahend.

 sum
noun
1. (arithmetic) A quantity obtained by addition or aggregation.
The of 3 and 4 is 7.
1. (arithmetic) An arithmetic computation, especially one posed to a student as an exercise (not necessarily limited to addition.)
2. A quantity of money.
3. A summary.
4. A central idea or point.
5. The utmost degree.
6. (obsolete) An old English measure of corn equal to the quarter.
• 1882, The is also used for the quarter, and the strike for the bushel. &mdash; James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, Volume 4, p. 207.
verb (sum, m, ing)
• 2005, w:Plato, Plato, Sophist. Translation by Lesley Brown. w:Stephanus pagination, 250b.
• : when you say that stability and change are, it's because you're summing them up together as embraced by it, and taking note of the communion each of them has with being.
1. (transitive) To give a summary of.

 sup
noun
1. A sip; a small amount of food or drink.
verb (sups, supping, supped)
1. To sip; to take a small amount of food or drink into the mouth, especially with a spoon.
2. To take supper.
• 1883: w:Robert Louis Stevenson, Robert Louis Stevenson, w:Treasure Island, Treasure Island
• : ...I propose we should have up the cold pie, and let him .
• 1879: w:Bram Stoker, Bram Stoker, w:Dracula, Dracula
• : I pray you, be seated and how you please. You will, I trust, excuse me that I do not join you; but I have dined already, and I do not . =

 supplement
noun
1. Something added, especially to make up for a deficiency.
2. An extension to a document or publication that adds information, corrects errors or brings up to date.
3. An additional section of a newspaper devoted to a specific subject.
4. (geometry) An angle that, when added to a given angle, makes 180Â°; a supplementary angle.
5. (bodybuilding): A vitamin, herbal extract, or chemical compound included with a diet to enhance muscular development.
verb (supplements, supplementing, supplemented)
1. To provide or make a supplement to something.

 supremum
noun (suprema)
1. (mathematics) (of a subset) the least element of the containing set that is greater or equal to all elements of the subset. The supremum may or may not be a member of the subset.

 surd
noun (plural surds)
1. (arithmetic) An irrational number, especially one expressed using the â�� symbol.
2. (linguistics) A voiceless consonant.

 surface
noun
1. The up-side of a flat object such as a table.
2. The outside hull of a tangible object.
3. (math) (geometry) The locus of an equation (especially one with exactly two degree of freedom, degrees of freedom) in a more-than-two-dimensional space.
verb (surfaces, surfacing, surfaced) (transitive)
1. (transitive) To provide something with a surface.
2. (transitive) To apply a surface to something.
3. (intransitive) To rise to the surface.
4. (intransitive) To come out of hiding.
5. (intransitive) For information or facts to become known.
6. (intransitive) To work a mine near the surface.

 surjection
noun
1. (math) A function of "many-to-one" mapping relationship; more formally, f:&nbsp;X&nbsp;&rarr;&nbsp;Y is a surjection if and only if, for every y in the function codomain, codomain Y, there is at least one x in the function domain, domain X with f(x)&nbsp;=&nbsp;y.

 surjective
1. of, relating to, or being a surjection

 symmetric function
noun
1. (mathematics) Any function, of multiple variables, whose value is independent of the order of the variables i.e. f(a,b) = f(b,a)

 synclastic
1. (context, of a surface) curved toward the same side in all directions
2. (mathematics) of a surface whose Gaussian curvature is positive at all points

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