# All Words Glossary

Glossary of Math Terms
beginning with letter A
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 Abelian  proper noun (rfc-level, Proper noun at L4+ not in L3 POS section)
1. (ecclesiastical history) a member of a sect in fourth-century Africa mentioned by St. Augustine, who states that they married but lived in continence after the manner, as they claimed, of Abel.
 abscissa  noun
1. (geometry) One of the elements of reference by which a point, as of a curve, is referred to a system of fixed rectilinear coordinate axes. When referred to two intersecting axes, one of them called the axis of abscissas, or of X, and the other the axis of ordinates, or of Y, the abscissa of the point is the distance cut off from the axis of X by a line drawn through it and parallel to the axis of Y. When a point in space is referred to three axes having a common intersection, the abscissa may be the distance measured parallel to either of them, from the point to the plane of the other two axes. Abscissas and ordinates taken together are called coordinates. -- OX or PY is the abscissa of the point P of the curve, OY or PX its ordinate, the intersecting lines OX and OY being the axes of abscissas and ordinates respectively, and the point O their origin.
 absolute  noun
1. (geometry) In a plane, the two imaginary circular points at infinity; in space of three dimensions, the imaginary circle at infinity.
2. (grammar) The first of the three degrees of comparison.
3. That which is independent of context-dependent interpretation, inviolate, fundamental (referring to Adjective Definition 4)
as in moral absolutes
adjective (more absolute or (rarely) absoluter, most absolute or (rarely) absolutest)
1. Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled; unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority, monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command.
• 1962, Hannah Arendt, On Revolution, (1990), page 155
• : The more absolute the ruler, the more absolute the revolution will be which replaces him.
1. complete, Complete in itself; perfect; consummate; faultless.
absolute perfection
absolute beauty
• So absolute she seems, And in herself complete. "w:John Milton, John Milton
1. Viewed apart from modifying influences or without comparison with other objects; actual; real; " opposed to relative and (compar); as, absolute motion; absolute time or space.
Absolute rights and duties are such as pertain to man in a state of nature as contradistinguished from relative rights and duties, or such as pertain to him in his social relations.
1. Loosed from, or unconnected by, dependence on any other being; self-existent; self-sufficing.
Note: In this sense God is called the Absolute by the Theist. The term is also applied by the Pantheist to the universe, or the total of all existence, as only capable of relations in its parts to each other and to the whole, and as dependent for its existence and its phenomena on its mutually depending forces and their laws.
1. Capable of being thought or conceived by itself alone; unconditioned; non-relative.
Note: It is in dispute among philosophers whether the term, in this sense, is not applied to a mere logical fiction or abstraction, or whether the absolute, as thus defined, can be known, as a reality, by the human intellect.
• To Cusa we can indeed articulately trace, word and thing, the recent philosophy of the absolute. "w:William Hamilton, William Hamilton
1. (rare) Positive; clear; certain; not doubtful.
• I am absolute "t was very Cloten. "Shakespeare, Cymbeline, IV,ii
1. (rare) Authoritative; peremptory.
• The peddler stopped, and tapped her on the head, With absolute forefinger, brown and ringed. "w:Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Elizabeth Barrett Browning
1. (chemistry) Pure; unmixed; as, absolute alcohol.
2. (grammar) Not immediately dependent on the other parts of the sentence in government; as, the case absolute. (See ablative absolute.)
 abstract number  noun
1. A number used without application to things, as 6, 8, 10; but when applied to any thing, as 6 feet, 10 men, it becomes concrete.
 abundant number  noun
1. (number theory) A number that less than the sum of all of its divisors except itself.
The factors of 30 are 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15 and 30, and 1 + 2 + 3 + 5 + 6 + 10 + 15 = 42, which is greater than 30, so 30 is an .
 accuracy  noun (accuracies)
1. The state of being accurate; freedom from mistakes, this exemption arising from carefulness; exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; precision; exactness; nicety; correctness; as, the value of testimony depends on its
Quotations
• The professed end of logic is to teach men to think, to judge, and to reason, with precision and . - Reid
• The with which the piston fits the sides. - Lardner
•  ADD  initialism
2. Accidental Death and Dismemberment
3. A designation on prerecorded compact discs indicating that the contents were recorded in analog but mixed and mastered in digital; compare AAD, DAD, DDD.
 addend  noun
1. (arithmetic) Any one of two or more numbers that are to be added together.
 addition  noun
1. (uncountable) The act of adding anything.
The addition of five more items to the agenda will make the meeting unbearably long.
2. (arithmetic) (uncountable) The process of adding.
 additive  noun
1. A substance added to another substance or product for its ability to alter the results.
Example: Oil may be used as an to gasoline to improve the lubrication of a small engine
1. (mathematics) Proper to be added; positive; -- opposed to subtractive.
 additive identity  noun
1. (algebra) An element of an algebraic structure, generally denoted 0, which is an identity for an additive operation (generally denoted +). That is, x + 0 = 0 + x = x for any x in the structure.
 adjacent angles  noun
1. Two coplaner, non-overlapping angles sharing a side and vertex
 adjoint  1. This word is used in mathematics, it can be applied to several situations, liked adjoint matrix, adjoint linear operator, adjoint functor.
 affine geometry  noun
1. (mathematics) The branch of geometry dealing with w:affine transformations, affine transformations.
 affine group  noun
1. (Mathematics) the group of all w:affine transformations, affine transformations of a finite-dimensional vector space.
 aggregate  noun
1. A mass, assemblage, or sum of particulars; something consisting of elements but considered as a whole.
2. A mass formed by the union of homogeneous particles; " in distinction from a compound, formed by the union of heterogeneous particles.
3. The full chromatic or the set of all twelve pitch classes, usually presented by two or more voices near-simultaneity, simultaneously in hexachords. (DeLone? et. al. (Eds.), 1975, chap. 6) (rfc, music definition needs rewritten because the current one is copyrighted)
4. Solid particles of low aspect ratio added to a composite material, as distinguished from the matrix and any fibers or reinforcements, especially the gravel and sand added to concrete. (technical)
verb (aggregat, ing)
1. (transitive) To bring together; to collect into a mass or sum. The aggregated soil.
2. (transitive) To add or unite, as, a person, to an association.
3. (transitive) To amount in the aggregate to; as, ten loads, aggregating five hundred bushels.
1. Formed by a collection of particulars into a whole mass or sum; collective; combined; added up
2. consisting or formed of smaller objects or parts.
3. Formed into clusters or groups of lobules; as, aggregate glands.
4. Composed of several florets within a common involucre, as in the daisy; or of several carpels formed from one flower, as in the raspberry.
5. Having the several component parts adherent to each other only to such a degree as to be separable by mechanical means.
6. United into a common organized mass; said of certain compound animals.
 agonic  1. Lacking an angle
 aleph-null  noun (or aleph-zero)
1. (mathematics) The first of the transfinite cardinal numbers; corresponds to the number of positive integers, also called natural numbers. Georg Cantor showed that even all the rational numbers could be put in one-to-one correspondence with them, and are therefore countable, enumerable or denumerable.
 algebra  noun
1. (uncountable, math) A system for computation using letters or other symbols to represent numbers, with rules for manipulating these symbols.
2. (countable, math) A structure consisting of a set of elements together with one or more operations and rules specifying what expressions are equivalent.
3. (uncountable, mathematics) The study of algebras.
 algebraic equation  noun (pluralalgebraic equations)
1. (algebra) a mathematical equation in which one or both sides is an algebraic expression, such as 2x + 7y = 3
 algebraic function  noun
1. (algebra) Any function that only uses the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and raising to a rational power
 algebraic geometry  noun (uncountable)
1. (math) a branch of mathematics that studies solutions of systems of algebraic equations using both algebra and geometry.
 algebraic number  noun
1. (mathematics) A number that is a root of a polynomial equation with rational coefficients
 algorism  noun
1. (obsolete spelling of, algorithm)
Euclid's Algorism is an efficient algorithm for finding the GCD of two numbers.
1. Computing in, or using, arabic numerals.
 algorithm  noun
1. A precise step-by-step plan for a computational procedure that begins with an input value and yields an output value in a finite number of steps.
1990: Cormen, Leiserson, and Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms: page 1. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press, 1999 (23rd printing) - Informally, an is any well-defined computational procedure that takes some value, or set of values, as input and produces some value, or set of values, as output. An is thus a sequence of computational steps that transform the input into the output.
 alignment chart  noun ((plural) alignment charts)
1. A nomogram.
 aliquot  noun
1. (chemistry) a portion of a total amount of a solution
1. (mathematics) contained in the whole an integral number of times
• usually in the phrase aliquot part
"the meal should be divided in aliquot parts among the members of the sick and indigent roomkeeper"s association as a token of his regard and esteem. (Joyce, Ulysses'')
 amplitude  noun
1. the measure of something's size; magnitude
2. (mathematics) the maximum absolute value of the vertical component of a periodic curve
3. (physics) the maximum absolute value of some quantity that varies periodically
 analysis situs  noun
1. (obsolete),(mathematics) topology
 annihilator  noun
1. One who annihilates.
 anticlastic  1. (context, of a surface) curved in opposite ways in two directions; saddle-shaped
2. (mathematics) of a surface whose Gaussian curvature is negative at all points
 antiderivative  noun
1. (calculus) an indefinite integral
 antilog  abbreviation
1. antilogarithm
 antilogarithm  noun (antilog))
1. (mathematics) The number of which a given number is the logarithm (to a given base).
If [itex]x=\log y[/itex], then y is the of x.
 antiparallel  1. (mathematics) of vectors, parallel but of opposite direction
2. (biochemistry) describing the orientations of the two strands of DNA
3. (biochemistry) describing two beta strands comprising a protein's secondary structure that are aligned and hydrogen bonded but the vector describing the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of each strand are oriented 180° relative to one another.
 apothem  noun
1. The distance from the center of a regular polygon perpendicular to one of its sides.
 arbitrary  1. Determined by impulse rather than reason.
2. Chosen for no reason, somewhat random.
3. Outcome usually technically logical.
The equation is true for an value of x.
 area  noun
1. (geometry) A measure of squared distance.
2. A particular geographic region.
 arithmetic  noun (uncountable)
1. (mathematics) The mathematics of numbers (integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers) under the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to powers and extraction of roots..
2. (modifying another noun) (mathematics) Of, involving or relating to arithmetic.
arithmetic test
1. (mathematics) of, relating to, or using arithmetic; arithmetical
2. (arithmetic) Of a progression, mean, etc, computed using addition rather than multiplication.
arithmetic progression
 arithmetic progression  noun
1. (analysis) A sequence in which each term except the first is obtained from the previous by adding a constant value, known as the common difference of the arithmetic progression.
 astroid  noun (pluralastroids)
1. (geometry) A hypocycloid with four cusps.
 asymmetric  1. (geometry, general) Of a shape, not symmetric.
 asymptote  noun (pluralasymptotes)
1. (mathematics) A straight line which a curve approaches arbitrarily closely, but never reaches, as they go to infinity. The limit of the curve, its tangent "at infinity".
 asymptotic  1. (mathematics) Of, relating to, or being an asymptote.
 augend  noun
1. (arithmetic) A quantity to which another is added.
 average  noun
1. (arithmetic) The arithmetic mean.
The average of 10, 20 and 24 is (10 + 20 + 24)/3 = 18.
1. (arithmetic) Any measure of central tendency, especially the mean, median or mode (see Usage notes below).
2. In various sports, an indication of a player's ability calculated from his score, scoring record, etc.
batting average
adjective ((compar) more average, (superl) most average)
1. (not comparable) Constituting or relating to the average.
The average age of the participants was 18.5.
1. Neither very good nor very bad; rated somewhere in the middle of all others in the same category.
I soon found I was only an average chess player.
1. Typical.
The average family will not need the more expensive features of this product.
 Axis  proper nounthe Axis
1. The alliance group before and during World War II consisting of Germany, Italy, Japan, and allied countries.

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