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Glossary of Math Terms
beginning with letter A
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Abelian Tweet Definition of Abelian Like Definition of Abelian on Facebook
proper noun (rfc-level, Proper noun at L4+ not in L3 POS section)
  1. (ecclesiastical history) a member of a sect in fourth-century Africa mentioned by St. Augustine, who states that they married but lived in continence after the manner, as they claimed, of Abel.
abscissa Tweet Definition of abscissa Like Definition of abscissa on Facebook
  1. (geometry) One of the elements of reference by which a point, as of a curve, is referred to a system of fixed rectilinear coordinate axes. When referred to two intersecting axes, one of them called the axis of abscissas, or of X, and the other the axis of ordinates, or of Y, the abscissa of the point is the distance cut off from the axis of X by a line drawn through it and parallel to the axis of Y. When a point in space is referred to three axes having a common intersection, the abscissa may be the distance measured parallel to either of them, from the point to the plane of the other two axes. Abscissas and ordinates taken together are called coordinates. -- OX or PY is the abscissa of the point P of the curve, OY or PX its ordinate, the intersecting lines OX and OY being the axes of abscissas and ordinates respectively, and the point O their origin.
absolute Tweet Definition of absolute Like Definition of absolute on Facebook
  1. (geometry) In a plane, the two imaginary circular points at infinity; in space of three dimensions, the imaginary circle at infinity.
  2. (grammar) The first of the three degrees of comparison.
  3. That which is independent of context-dependent interpretation, inviolate, fundamental (referring to Adjective Definition 4)
as in moral absolutes
adjective (more absolute or (rarely) absoluter, most absolute or (rarely) absolutest)
  1. Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled; unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority, monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command.
    • 1962, Hannah Arendt, On Revolution, (1990), page 155
    • : The more absolute the ruler, the more absolute the revolution will be which replaces him.
      1. complete, Complete in itself; perfect; consummate; faultless.
      absolute perfection
      absolute beauty
    • So absolute she seems, And in herself complete. "w:John Milton, John Milton
      1. Viewed apart from modifying influences or without comparison with other objects; actual; real; " opposed to relative and (compar); as, absolute motion; absolute time or space.
      Absolute rights and duties are such as pertain to man in a state of nature as contradistinguished from relative rights and duties, or such as pertain to him in his social relations.
      1. Loosed from, or unconnected by, dependence on any other being; self-existent; self-sufficing.
      Note: In this sense God is called the Absolute by the Theist. The term is also applied by the Pantheist to the universe, or the total of all existence, as only capable of relations in its parts to each other and to the whole, and as dependent for its existence and its phenomena on its mutually depending forces and their laws.
      1. Capable of being thought or conceived by itself alone; unconditioned; non-relative.
      Note: It is in dispute among philosophers whether the term, in this sense, is not applied to a mere logical fiction or abstraction, or whether the absolute, as thus defined, can be known, as a reality, by the human intellect.
    • To Cusa we can indeed articulately trace, word and thing, the recent philosophy of the absolute. "w:William Hamilton, William Hamilton
      1. (rare) Positive; clear; certain; not doubtful.
    • I am absolute "t was very Cloten. "Shakespeare, Cymbeline, IV,ii
      1. (rare) Authoritative; peremptory.
    • The peddler stopped, and tapped her on the head, With absolute forefinger, brown and ringed. "w:Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Elizabeth Barrett Browning
      1. (chemistry) Pure; unmixed; as, absolute alcohol.
      2. (grammar) Not immediately dependent on the other parts of the sentence in government; as, the case absolute. (See ablative absolute.)
abstract number Tweet Definition of abstract number Like Definition of abstract number on Facebook
  1. A number used without application to things, as 6, 8, 10; but when applied to any thing, as 6 feet, 10 men, it becomes concrete.
abundant number Tweet Definition of abundant number Like Definition of abundant number on Facebook
  1. (number theory) A number that less than the sum of all of its divisors except itself.
The factors of 30 are 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15 and 30, and 1 + 2 + 3 + 5 + 6 + 10 + 15 = 42, which is greater than 30, so 30 is an .
accuracy Tweet Definition of accuracy Like Definition of accuracy on Facebook
noun (accuracies)
  1. The state of being accurate; freedom from mistakes, this exemption arising from carefulness; exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; precision; exactness; nicety; correctness; as, the value of testimony depends on its
  • The professed end of logic is to teach men to think, to judge, and to reason, with precision and . - Reid
  • The with which the piston fits the sides. - Lardner
    ADD Tweet Definition of ADD Like Definition of ADD on Facebook
    1. Attention Deficit Disorder, see also :w:Attention-Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder, article about ADD in Wikipedia
    2. Accidental Death and Dismemberment
    3. A designation on prerecorded compact discs indicating that the contents were recorded in analog but mixed and mastered in digital; compare AAD, DAD, DDD.
    addend Tweet Definition of addend Like Definition of addend on Facebook
    1. (arithmetic) Any one of two or more numbers that are to be added together.
    addition Tweet Definition of addition Like Definition of addition on Facebook
    1. (uncountable) The act of adding anything.
    The addition of five more items to the agenda will make the meeting unbearably long.
    1. Anything that is added.
    2. (arithmetic) (uncountable) The process of adding.
    additive Tweet Definition of additive Like Definition of additive on Facebook
    1. A substance added to another substance or product for its ability to alter the results.
    Example: Oil may be used as an to gasoline to improve the lubrication of a small engine
    1. (mathematics) Proper to be added; positive; -- opposed to subtractive.
    additive identity Tweet Definition of additive identity Like Definition of additive identity on Facebook
    1. (algebra) An element of an algebraic structure, generally denoted 0, which is an identity for an additive operation (generally denoted +). That is, x + 0 = 0 + x = x for any x in the structure.
    adjacent angles Tweet Definition of adjacent angles Like Definition of adjacent angles on Facebook
    1. Two coplaner, non-overlapping angles sharing a side and vertex
    adjoint Tweet Definition of adjoint Like Definition of adjoint on Facebook
    1. This word is used in mathematics, it can be applied to several situations, liked adjoint matrix, adjoint linear operator, adjoint functor.
    affine geometry Tweet Definition of affine geometry Like Definition of affine geometry on Facebook
    1. (mathematics) The branch of geometry dealing with w:affine transformations, affine transformations.
    affine group Tweet Definition of affine group Like Definition of affine group on Facebook
    1. (Mathematics) the group of all w:affine transformations, affine transformations of a finite-dimensional vector space.
    aggregate Tweet Definition of aggregate Like Definition of aggregate on Facebook
    1. A mass, assemblage, or sum of particulars; something consisting of elements but considered as a whole.
    2. A mass formed by the union of homogeneous particles; " in distinction from a compound, formed by the union of heterogeneous particles.
    3. The full chromatic or the set of all twelve pitch classes, usually presented by two or more voices near-simultaneity, simultaneously in hexachords. (DeLone? et. al. (Eds.), 1975, chap. 6) (rfc, music definition needs rewritten because the current one is copyrighted)
    4. Solid particles of low aspect ratio added to a composite material, as distinguished from the matrix and any fibers or reinforcements, especially the gravel and sand added to concrete. (technical)
    verb (aggregat, ing)
    1. (transitive) To bring together; to collect into a mass or sum. The aggregated soil.
    2. (transitive) To add or unite, as, a person, to an association.
    3. (transitive) To amount in the aggregate to; as, ten loads, aggregating five hundred bushels.
    1. Formed by a collection of particulars into a whole mass or sum; collective; combined; added up
    2. consisting or formed of smaller objects or parts.
    3. Formed into clusters or groups of lobules; as, aggregate glands.
    4. Composed of several florets within a common involucre, as in the daisy; or of several carpels formed from one flower, as in the raspberry.
    5. Having the several component parts adherent to each other only to such a degree as to be separable by mechanical means.
    6. United into a common organized mass; said of certain compound animals.
    agonic Tweet Definition of agonic Like Definition of agonic on Facebook
    1. Lacking an angle
    aleph-null Tweet Definition of aleph-null Like Definition of aleph-null on Facebook
    noun (or aleph-zero)
    1. (mathematics) The first of the transfinite cardinal numbers; corresponds to the number of positive integers, also called natural numbers. Georg Cantor showed that even all the rational numbers could be put in one-to-one correspondence with them, and are therefore countable, enumerable or denumerable.
    algebra Tweet Definition of algebra Like Definition of algebra on Facebook
    1. (uncountable, math) A system for computation using letters or other symbols to represent numbers, with rules for manipulating these symbols.
    2. (countable, math) A structure consisting of a set of elements together with one or more operations and rules specifying what expressions are equivalent.
    3. (uncountable, mathematics) The study of algebras.
    algebraic equation Tweet Definition of algebraic equation Like Definition of algebraic equation on Facebook
    noun (plural algebraic equations)
    1. (algebra) a mathematical equation in which one or both sides is an algebraic expression, such as 2x + 7y = 3
    algebraic function Tweet Definition of algebraic function Like Definition of algebraic function on Facebook
    1. (algebra) Any function that only uses the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and raising to a rational power
    algebraic geometry Tweet Definition of algebraic geometry Like Definition of algebraic geometry on Facebook
    noun (uncountable)
    1. (math) a branch of mathematics that studies solutions of systems of algebraic equations using both algebra and geometry.
    algebraic number Tweet Definition of algebraic number Like Definition of algebraic number on Facebook
    1. (mathematics) A number that is a root of a polynomial equation with rational coefficients
    algorism Tweet Definition of algorism Like Definition of algorism on Facebook
    1. (obsolete spelling of, algorithm)
    Euclid's Algorism is an efficient algorithm for finding the GCD of two numbers.
    1. Computing in, or using, arabic numerals.
    algorithm Tweet Definition of algorithm Like Definition of algorithm on Facebook
    1. A precise step-by-step plan for a computational procedure that begins with an input value and yields an output value in a finite number of steps.
    1990: Cormen, Leiserson, and Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms: page 1. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press, 1999 (23rd printing) - Informally, an is any well-defined computational procedure that takes some value, or set of values, as input and produces some value, or set of values, as output. An is thus a sequence of computational steps that transform the input into the output.
    alignment chart Tweet Definition of alignment chart Like Definition of alignment chart on Facebook
    noun ((plural) alignment charts)
    1. A nomogram.
    aliquot Tweet Definition of aliquot Like Definition of aliquot on Facebook
    1. (chemistry) a portion of a total amount of a solution
    1. (mathematics) contained in the whole an integral number of times
    • usually in the phrase aliquot part
    "the meal should be divided in aliquot parts among the members of the sick and indigent roomkeeper"s association as a token of his regard and esteem. (Joyce, Ulysses'')
    amplitude Tweet Definition of amplitude Like Definition of amplitude on Facebook
    1. the measure of something's size; magnitude
    2. (mathematics) the maximum absolute value of the vertical component of a periodic curve
    3. (physics) the maximum absolute value of some quantity that varies periodically
    analysis situs Tweet Definition of analysis situs Like Definition of analysis situs on Facebook
    1. (obsolete),(mathematics) topology
    annihilator Tweet Definition of annihilator Like Definition of annihilator on Facebook
    1. One who annihilates.
    anticlastic Tweet Definition of anticlastic Like Definition of anticlastic on Facebook
    1. (context, of a surface) curved in opposite ways in two directions; saddle-shaped
    2. (mathematics) of a surface whose Gaussian curvature is negative at all points
    antiderivative Tweet Definition of antiderivative Like Definition of antiderivative on Facebook
    1. (calculus) an indefinite integral
    antilog Tweet Definition of antilog Like Definition of antilog on Facebook
    1. antilogarithm
    antilogarithm Tweet Definition of antilogarithm Like Definition of antilogarithm on Facebook
    noun (antilog))
    1. (mathematics) The number of which a given number is the logarithm (to a given base).
    If <math>x=\log y</math>, then y is the of x.
    antiparallel Tweet Definition of antiparallel Like Definition of antiparallel on Facebook
    1. (mathematics) of vectors, parallel but of opposite direction
    2. (biochemistry) describing the orientations of the two strands of DNA
    3. (biochemistry) describing two beta strands comprising a protein's secondary structure that are aligned and hydrogen bonded but the vector describing the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of each strand are oriented 180° relative to one another.
    apothem Tweet Definition of apothem Like Definition of apothem on Facebook
    1. The distance from the center of a regular polygon perpendicular to one of its sides.
    arbitrary Tweet Definition of arbitrary Like Definition of arbitrary on Facebook
    1. Determined by impulse rather than reason.
    2. Chosen for no reason, somewhat random.
    3. Outcome usually technically logical.
    The equation is true for an value of x.
    area Tweet Definition of area Like Definition of area on Facebook
    1. (geometry) A measure of squared distance.
    2. A particular geographic region.
    arithmetic Tweet Definition of arithmetic Like Definition of arithmetic on Facebook
    noun (uncountable)
    1. (mathematics) The mathematics of numbers (integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers) under the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to powers and extraction of roots..
    2. (modifying another noun) (mathematics) Of, involving or relating to arithmetic.
    arithmetic test
    adjective (no comparative or superlative)
    1. (mathematics) of, relating to, or using arithmetic; arithmetical
    2. (arithmetic) Of a progression, mean, etc, computed using addition rather than multiplication.
    arithmetic progression
    arithmetic progression Tweet Definition of arithmetic progression Like Definition of arithmetic progression on Facebook
    1. (analysis) A sequence in which each term except the first is obtained from the previous by adding a constant value, known as the common difference of the arithmetic progression.
    astroid Tweet Definition of astroid Like Definition of astroid on Facebook
    noun (plural astroids)
    1. (geometry) A hypocycloid with four cusps.
    asymmetric Tweet Definition of asymmetric Like Definition of asymmetric on Facebook
    1. (geometry, general) Of a shape, not symmetric.
    asymptote Tweet Definition of asymptote Like Definition of asymptote on Facebook
    noun (plural asymptotes)
    1. (mathematics) A straight line which a curve approaches arbitrarily closely, but never reaches, as they go to infinity. The limit of the curve, its tangent "at infinity".
    asymptotic Tweet Definition of asymptotic Like Definition of asymptotic on Facebook
    1. (mathematics) Of, relating to, or being an asymptote.
    augend Tweet Definition of augend Like Definition of augend on Facebook
    1. (arithmetic) A quantity to which another is added.
    average Tweet Definition of average Like Definition of average on Facebook
    1. (arithmetic) The arithmetic mean.
    The average of 10, 20 and 24 is (10 + 20 + 24)/3 = 18.
    1. (arithmetic) Any measure of central tendency, especially the mean, median or mode (see Usage notes below).
    2. In various sports, an indication of a player's ability calculated from his score, scoring record, etc.
    batting average
    adjective ((compar) more average, (superl) most average)
    1. (not comparable) Constituting or relating to the average.
    The average age of the participants was 18.5.
    1. Neither very good nor very bad; rated somewhere in the middle of all others in the same category.
    I soon found I was only an average chess player.
    1. Typical.
    The average family will not need the more expensive features of this product.
    Axis Tweet Definition of Axis Like Definition of Axis on Facebook
    proper noun the Axis
    1. The alliance group before and during World War II consisting of Germany, Italy, Japan, and allied countries.

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