Complete Definition of "and"

see|AND|Ã¥nd
wikipedia
English
rank|-|the|of|3|and|to|in|I

Etymology
From ME. < OE. term|and|langang, term|ond|langang||thereupon, next < PG. *term||unda < PIE. *term||anti|facing opposite, near, in front of, before.

Pronunciation
(stressed) IPA|/ænd/, SAMPA|/{nd/, AHD|ănd
audio|en-us-and.ogg|Audio (US)
(unstressed) IPA|/ən(d)/, SAMPA|/@n(d)/, AHD|ən(d)
audio|en-us-ham-and-eggs.ogg|Audio (US) The unstressed and as part of the phrase “ham and eggs”.

Conjunction
en-conj

  1. Used to connect two homogeneous (similar) words or phrases.
  2. Used at the end of a list to indicate the last item.

#: bread, butter, and cheese

  1. Used to join sentences or sentence fragments in chronological order.
  2. Used to indicate causation.

#: Ask me the definition of “and” again and I’ll scream.

Quotations
seecites

Usage notes
rel-top|Usage notes
<ol><li>Beginning a sentence with term|and or any other conjunction is considered incorrect by classical grammarians, but use of the word in this way is very common. The practice will be found in literature from Anglo-Saxon times onwards, especially as an aid to continuity in narrative and dialogue. The OED provides examples from the 9<sup>th</sup> century to the 19<sup>th</sup> century, including one from Shakespeare’s King John: “Arthur. Must you with hot Irons, burne out both mine eyes? Hubert. Young boy, I must. Arthur. And will you? Hubert. And I will.” It is also used for other rhetorical purposes, especially to denote surprise

<blockquote>(O John! and you have seen him! And are you really going?—1884</blockquote>

in OED) and sometimes just to introduce an improvised afterthought

<blockquote>(I’m going to swim. And don’t you dare watch—G. Butler, 1983)</blockquote>

It is however poor style to separate short statements into separate sentences when no special effect is needed: I opened the door and I looked into the room (not I opened the door. And I looked into the room).

<li>term|and|And is often omitted for contextual effects of various kinds, especially between sequences of descriptive adjectives which can be separated by commas or simply by spaces

<blockquote>(The teeming jerrybuilt dun-coloured traffic-ridden deafening city—Penelope Lively, 1987)</blockquote>

term|and all|And all is a well-established tag added to the end of a statement, as in

<blockquote>Isn’t it amazing? He has a Ph.D. and all—J. Shute, 1992</blockquote>

. With the nominal meaning “also, besides, in addition”, the use has origins in dialect, as can be seen from the material from many regions given in the English Dialect Dictionary (often written in special ways, e.g., term||ano’, term||an’-all, term||an’ a’). In many of the examples it seems to lack any perceptible lexical meaning and to be just a rhythmical device to eke out a sentence.

<li>term|and|And also has special uses: to show progression (faster and faster), cause and effect (do that and I’ll send you to bed)’ duration (they ran and ran), a large number or quantity (miles and miles), and addition (four and four are eight), purpose (where term|and replaces term|to: Try and come tomorrow).

<li>Another special use, recorded in the OED from the 16<sup>th</sup> century, is to express “a difference of quality between things of the same name or class”, as in W.S. Gilbert’s lines from the Gondoliers (1889): “Well, as to that, of course there are kings and kings. When I say I detest kings I mean I detest bad kings”. To this we may add some modern examples:

<blockquote>There are ways to steal and there are ways to steal—New Yorker, 1988</blockquote>

<blockquote>There is homelessness and homelessness. The word has become a shibboleth for opposition politicians and the ‘caring’ media … The sort of homelessness which means despair is quite different from the sort that means adventure—Times, 1991</blockquote></ol>
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Synonyms
sense|used to connect two similar words or phrases as well as, together with, in addition to

Translations
trans-top|Used to connect two similar words, phrases, et cetera
Albanian: dhe
Amharic: ና (nā), እና (’anā)
Arabic: -ARchar|و#Arabic|و (wa-)
Aramaic:
Armenian: և (yev)
Basque: eta#Basque|eta, ta#Basque|ta
Belarusian: і
Bosnian: i#Bosnian|i
Breton: ha#Breton|ha, hag#Breton|hag (before a vowel)
Bulgarian: и#Bulgarian|и (i)
Catalan: i
Cherokee: ᎠᎴ (ale)
Chinese: 和 (hé), 及 (jí), 以及 (yǐjí)
Chuvash: тата
Cornish:

Croatian: i
Czech: a#Czech|a
Danish: og
Dutch: en#Dutch|en
Esperanto: kaj
Estonian: ja#Estonian|ja
Finnish: ja#Finnish|ja, sekä, ynnä (archaic)
French: t|fr|et
Frisian: en#Frisian|en
Georgian: და (da)
German: und
Greek: και (kai)
Guaraní: ha#Guaraní|ha
Hausa: dà#Hausa|dà
Hawaiian: ame, a#Hawaiian|a
Hebrew: -ו (ve-)
Hindi: और (aur)
Hungarian: és
Icelandic: og
Ido: e
Igbo: na#Igbo|na, also n'#Igbo|n' (if the next word is a vowel, esp. "a")
Indonesian: dan#Indonesian|dan
Interlingua: e#Interlingua|e (rarely: et)
Irish: agus
Italian: t|it|e, t|it|ed
Japanese: t|ja|scJpan|と|trto, t|ja|scJpan|かつ|trkatsu, t|ja|scJpan|とか|trtoka, t|ja|scJpan|や|trya
Kannada: ವುತ್ತು (vuttu), ಹಾಗೂ (hāgū)
Khmer: KMchar|និង (ning)
Korean: t|ko|scHang|와|trwa, t|ko|scHang|과|trgwa, t|ko|scHang|그리고|trgeurigo
Kurdish: û, herwiha, hem
trans-mid
Lakota: na#Lakota|na
Latin: et#Latin|et, at#Latin|at, atque, -que
Latvian: un#Latvian|un
Lithuanian: ir#Lithuanian|ir
Macedonian: и (i)
Maltese: u#Maltese|u
Manx: as
Maori: me, a
Marathi: आणि (āni), व (va)
Navajo: dóó
Norwegian: og
Novial: e
Ojibwe: dash#Ojibwe|dash, idash, gaye#Ojibwe|gaye, ge#Ojibwe|ge, miinawaa
Old High German: anti, enti
Old Norse: ok#Old Norse|ok
Old Prussian: be
Old Saxon: anda, endi
Persian: FAchar|و#Persian|و (væ)
Polish: t|pl|i
Portuguese: t|pt|e
Punjabi: lang|pa|ਅਤੇ (atē)
Romanian: şi
Romansch: e (becoming ed before a vowel)
Russian: t|ru|scCyrl|и|tri
Scottish Gaelic: agus
Serbian: t|sr|sc=Cyrl|и, t|sr|i
Sanskrit: च (ca)
Sindhi: SDchar|۽ (aee’)
Slovak: a#Slovak|a, i#Slovak|i
Slovene: in, ter, pa
Somali: iyo
Spanish: t|es|y, t|es|e
Swahili: na#Swahili|na
Swedish: och
Tamazight: â´· (d)
Telugu: మరియు (mariyu)
Thai: THchar|และ (lāē), THchar|กับ (gàp)
Tok Pisin: na#Tok Pisin|na, wantaim
Turkish: ve, ile#Turkish|ile
Ukrainian: і#Ukrainian|і (i) / й#Ukrainian|й (j), та#Ukrainian|та (ta)
Urdu: URchar|اور (aur)
Vietnamese: và
Welsh: italbrac|preconsonantal a#Welsh|a, italbrac|prevocalic ac#Welsh|ac
Xhosa: na#Xhosa|na- / ne#Xhosa|ne- / ni#Xhosa|ni- / no#Xhosa|no- / nu#Xhosa|nu-
Yiddish: און (un)
trans-bottom

trans-top|Used at the end of a list to indicate the last item
Basque: eta#Basque|eta, ta#Basque|ta
Bosnian: i#Bosnian|i
Bulgarian: и#Bulgarian|и (i)
Catalan: i#Catalan|i
Cherokee: ᎠᎴ (ale)
Cornish:

Czech: a#Czech|a
Danish: og
Dutch: en#Dutch|en
Esperanto: kaj
Estonian: ja#Estonian|ja
Finnish: ja#Finnish|ja
French: et
Frisian: en#Frisian|en
German: und
Greek: και (kai)
Hebrew: -ו (va-)
Hungarian: és
Icelandic: og
Interlingua: e#Interlingua|e (rarely: et)
Irish: agus
Italian: e#Italian|e (optionally becoming ed#Italian|ed before a vowel for euphony)
Japanese: 然して (そして, soshite)
Khmer: KMchar|និង (ning)
trans-mid
Kurdish: û
Maltese: u
Norwegian: og
Old Prussian: be
Persian: FAchar|و#Persian|و (væ)
Polish: i#Polish|i
Portuguese: e#Portuguese|e
Romanian: şi
Russian: и#Russian|и (i)
Scottish Gaelic: agus
Serbian: t|sr|sc=Cyrl|и, t|sr|i
Sindhi: SDchar|۽ (aee’)
Slovak: a#Slovak|a, i#Slovak|i
Slovene: in, ter, pa
Spanish: t|es|y, t|es|e
Swedish: och
Tok Pisin: na#Tok Pisin|na
Ukrainian: і#Ukrainian|і / й#Ukrainian|й (j), та#Ukrainian|та (ta)
Welsh: italbrac|preconsonantal a#Welsh|a, italbrac|prevocalic ac#Welsh|ac
Xhosa: na#Xhosa|na- / ne#Xhosa|ne- / ni#Xhosa|ni- / no#Xhosa|no- / nu#Xhosa|nu-
trans-bottom

trans-top|Used to string together sentences or sentence fragments in chronological order
Cherokee: ᎠᎴ (ale)
Cornish:

Czech: a#Czech|a
Irish: agus
Japanese: して (shite), て (te)
Khmer: KMchar|រួចេហីយ (ruech haey)
Kurdish: û
trans-mid
Maltese: u
Norwegian: og
Ojibwe: mii dash, miish
Russian: t|ru|scCyrl|а|tra, t|ru|scCyrl|но|trno (adversative), t|ru|scCyrl|и|tri
Ukrainian: і#Ukrainian|і (i) / й#Ukrainian|й (j), та#Ukrainian|та (ta), а#Ukrainian|а (a)
Xhosa: yaye
trans-bottom

trans-top|Used to show causation
Cherokee: ᎠᎴ (ale)
Czech: a#Czech|a
Norwegian: t|no|og, t|no|så
trans-mid
Sindhi: SDchar|۽ (aee’)
trans-bottom

checktrans
trans-top|Translations to be checked
ttbc|Maori: me, a, hoki, mā, ahā, rāua ko, rātua ko
trans-mid
trans-bottom

Anagrams
Dan
DNA
nad

Category:100 English basic words
Category:English coordinating conjunctions
Category:English coordinators


Amharic

numeral|Amharic
infl|am|numeral

  1. cardinal|lang=am one.

Danish

Noun
and

  1. duck

Estonian

Etymology
From the same Finno-Ugric root *term||amta as Finnish term|antaa and Hungarian term|ad#Hungarian|ad

Noun
and

  1. gift

Category:Estonian nouns


Norwegian

Noun
no-noun-irreg|c|anda/anden|ender|endene

  1. duck

Old English

Etymology
Common Germanic *term||andi

Conjunction
infl|ang|conjunction

  1. and

Preposition
infl|ang|preposition

  1. with
  2. against

Swedish

Pronunciation
audio|Sv-and.ogg|audio

Noun
sv-noun-reg-r-c|2ande|3ände
and c

  1. a wild duck

See also
anka (domesticated duck)

Category:Positive words
Category:Swedish nouns

af:and
ar:and
da:and
de:and
et:and
el:and
es:and
fr:and
gl:and
ko:and
hy:and
io:and
id:and
it:and
kk:and
ku:and
la:and
lt:and
hu:and
ms:and
na:and
ja:and
no:and
nn:and
pl:and
pt:and
ru:and
simple:and
sk:and
sr:and
fi:and
sv:and
ta:and
te:and
vi:and
tr:and
uk:and
zh:and

Revision and Credits for"and"
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