- A person or thing's backbone; the series of bones collectively from one's (literal or figurative) head to tail or pelvis.
- A rigid, pointed surface protuberance or needle-like structure on an animal, shell, or plant.
- A metaphor, Metaphor for courage or assertiveness, alluding to the backbone
- The narrow, bound edge of a book.
Etymology: From espine (modern: épine).
- Dutch: ruggengraat
- French: dos
- German: Rí¼ckgrat
- Italian: costa , dorso
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