- Any of various political philosophies that support social and economic equality, collective decision-making and public control of productive capital and natural resources, as advocated by socialists.
- The socialist political philosophies as a group, including Marxism, libertarian socialism, democratic socialism, and social democracy.
- (context, Leninism) The intermediate phase of social development between capitalism and full communism. This is a strategy whereby the State has control of all key resource-producing industries and manages most aspects of the market, in contrast to laissez faire capitalism.
- (context, Classical Marxism) The international communist society where classes and the state no longer exist.
- Dutch: socialisme
- German: Sozialismus(de)m
- Italian: socialismo(it)m
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