- An underground conduit, between vertical shafts, that leads water from the interior of a hill to villages in the valley
- 1981: Richard Edward Chapman, Geology and Water: An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics for Geologists, page 112.
- :Shafts are dug to the required level along the planned route of the , every 300 m or so, and the construction of the ...
- 1988: Keith Stanley McLachlan?, The Neglected Garden: The Politics and Ecology of Agriculture in Iran
- :Elsewhere over large areas of the plateau and the foothill regions, the irrigation cultures were weakened considerably. Water supplies diminished ...
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