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Glossary of Biochemistry Terms
beginning with letter A
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acetylcholine Tweet Definition of acetylcholine Like Definition of acetylcholine on Facebook
noun
  1. (neurotransmitter) A neurotransmitter in humans and other animals. It is an ester of acetic acid and choline with chemical formula acetyl, CH<small>3</small>COoxygen, Omethylene, CH<small>2</small>methylene, CH<small>2</small>Nitrogen, N<small~ezentity_gt+ezentity_lt~/small>(methyl, CH<small>3</small>)<small>3</small>.
acetylcholinesterase Tweet Definition of acetylcholinesterase Like Definition of acetylcholinesterase on Facebook
noun
  1. (enzyme) An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid.
ACTH Tweet Definition of ACTH Like Definition of ACTH on Facebook
initialism
  1. adrenocorticotropic hormone
adenine Tweet Definition of adenine Like Definition of adenine on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, biochemistry, genetics) A base, C5H5N5, found in certain glands and tissues, which pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA.
adenosine Tweet Definition of adenosine Like Definition of adenosine on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, biochemistry, genetics) A nucleoside derived from adenine and ribose, found in striated muscle tissue.
    • 2001: Caffeine acts as an antagonist at receptors in the brain for one of the chemical messengers called . " Leslie Iversen, Drugs: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford 2001, p. 82)
adenosine monophosphate Tweet Definition of adenosine monophosphate Like Definition of adenosine monophosphate on Facebook
noun (abbreviated as AMP)
  1. a nucleotide, found in all animal muscle cells, reversibly convertible to adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate.
adenosine triphosphate Tweet Definition of adenosine triphosphate Like Definition of adenosine triphosphate on Facebook
noun (abbreviation ATP)
  1. (biochemistry) A nucleotide that occurs in muscle tissue, and is used as a source of energy in cellular reactions, and in the synthesis of nucleic acids.
  2. (neurotransmitter) A neurotransmitter recognised by purinergic receptors.
ADH Tweet Definition of ADH Like Definition of ADH on Facebook
initialism
  1. Antidiuretic Hormone
ADP Tweet Definition of ADP Like Definition of ADP on Facebook
initialism
  1. (biochemistry) adenosine diphosphate
adrenergic Tweet Definition of adrenergic Like Definition of adrenergic on Facebook
adjective
  1. Having the quality of adrenaline or epinephrine.
  2. Containing or releasing adrenaline.
(seeCites)      
AFP Tweet Definition of AFP Like Definition of AFP on Facebook
initialism
  1. Australian Federal Police
  • French: Agence France-Presse
ALA Tweet Definition of ALA Like Definition of ALA on Facebook
initialism
  1. Alpha Linolenic Acid
  2. American Library Association
  3. Acacia Leadership Academy
alanine Tweet Definition of alanine Like Definition of alanine on Facebook
noun
  1. (amino acid) A nonessential amino acid C3H7NO2 found in most animal proteins.
albumen Tweet Definition of albumen Like Definition of albumen on Facebook
noun (albumens, pl2=albumina, -)
  1. The white part of an egg; being mostly the protein albumin and water.
albumin Tweet Definition of albumin Like Definition of albumin on Facebook
noun
  1. A class of proteins that are soluble in water, and are coagulated by heat; they occur in egg white, milk etc
albuminous Tweet Definition of albuminous Like Definition of albuminous on Facebook
adjective
  1. Of or pertaining to albumin.
aldosterone Tweet Definition of aldosterone Like Definition of aldosterone on Facebook
noun
  1. (steroid hormone) A mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that regulates the balance of sodium and potassium in the body.
amino acid Tweet Definition of amino acid Like Definition of amino acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any organic compound containing both an amine, amino and a carboxylic acid functional group.
  2. (biochemistry) Any of the twenty naturally occurring &alpha;-amino acids (having the amino, and carboxylic acid groups on the same carbon atom), and a variety of side chains, that combine, via peptide bonds, to form proteins.
aminotransferase Tweet Definition of aminotransferase Like Definition of aminotransferase on Facebook
noun
  1. (enzyme) transaminase
AMP Tweet Definition of AMP Like Definition of AMP on Facebook
initialism
  1. adenosine monophosphate
amylase Tweet Definition of amylase Like Definition of amylase on Facebook
noun
  1. (enzyme) Any of a class of digestive enzymes, present in saliva, that break down complex carbohydrates such as starch into simpler sugars such as glucose.
amyloid Tweet Definition of amyloid Like Definition of amyloid on Facebook
noun
  1. A waxy compound of protein and polysaccharides that is found deposited in tissues in amyloidosis.
  2. Any of various starchlike substances.
adjective
  1. Containing or resembling starch
androgen Tweet Definition of androgen Like Definition of androgen on Facebook
noun
  1. (steroid hormone) The generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates. A male sex hormone such as testosterone or anabolic steroids.
androsterone Tweet Definition of androsterone Like Definition of androsterone on Facebook
noun
  1. (steroid hormone) An androgenic hormone, excreted in the urine, somewhat less active than testosterone.
anneal Tweet Definition of anneal Like Definition of anneal on Facebook
verb
  1. (context, metallurgy) To subject to great heat, and then cool slowly for the purpose of rendering less brittle; to temper; to toughen.
anthocyanin Tweet Definition of anthocyanin Like Definition of anthocyanin on Facebook
noun
  1. (organic chemistry) Any of many water-soluble red to violet plant pigments related to the flavonoids.
antibiotic Tweet Definition of antibiotic Like Definition of antibiotic on Facebook
noun
  1. (pharmacology) Any substance that can destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria and similar microorganisms.
adjective
  1. (pharmacology) Of or relating to antibiotics.
antioxidant Tweet Definition of antioxidant Like Definition of antioxidant on Facebook
noun
  1. any substance that acts to slow or prevent the oxidation of another chemical
  2. in nutrition, one of a group of vitamins that act against the effects of free radicals
adjective
  1. acting or havirng agents that act against oxidation
antivitamin Tweet Definition of antivitamin Like Definition of antivitamin on Facebook
noun
  1. (biochemistry) any compound that inhibits the metabolic action of a vitamin
arachidonic acid Tweet Definition of arachidonic acid Like Definition of arachidonic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (biochemistry) A long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, found in animal fats; it is essential for human nutrition, being a precursor to the production of prostaglandins.
arginine Tweet Definition of arginine Like Definition of arginine on Facebook
noun
  1. An amino acid found in animal foods that plays an important role in several physiological processes
ascorbic acid Tweet Definition of ascorbic acid Like Definition of ascorbic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. A white crystalline organic compound, C6H8O6, found in citrus fruits and many vegetables; it is an antioxidant and an efficient scavenger of free radicals.
ASP Tweet Definition of ASP Like Definition of ASP on Facebook
initialism
  1. Active Server Pages
  2. Application Service Provider
  3. An extensible baton, used by police and security officers. From the name of the manufacturer: Amalgamated Security Products.
aspartic acid Tweet Definition of aspartic acid Like Definition of aspartic acid on Facebook
noun
  1. (amino acid) A nonessential amino acid, L-Î~+mn~-amino-succinic acid, (C4H7NO4), found in animal protein and in sugar beet etc.
ATP Tweet Definition of ATP Like Definition of ATP on Facebook
initialism
  1. (biochemistry) adenosine triphosphate
  2. (tennis) w:Association of Tennis Professionals, Association of Tennis Professionals
autolysis Tweet Definition of autolysis Like Definition of autolysis on Facebook
noun
  1. (context, pathology, cytology) The destruction of an organism's cells by enzymes produced by the organism itself.
  2. (pathology) The autodigestion of the tissues of an organism.
  3. (pathology) The autocytolysis of blood cells.
  4. The decomposition of dead yeast cells in wine after fermentation.
auxin Tweet Definition of auxin Like Definition of auxin on Facebook
noun
  1. (botany)A class of plant growth substance (often called phytohormones or plant hormones) which play an essential role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant life cycle.

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